What Is Plasmodium Malaria: Symptoms And Prevention

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What Is Plasmodium Malaria: Symptoms And Prevention
What Is Plasmodium Malaria: Symptoms And Prevention

Video: What Is Plasmodium Malaria: Symptoms And Prevention

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Video: Malaria - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology 2023, February
Anonim
  • 1 Characteristics of the disease
  • 2 Sources of infection and where can you get infected?
  • 3 Development of malaria plasmodium
  • 4 Symptoms of infection and diagnosis
  • 5 Methods of prevention

What is Plasmodium malaria, where can a parasite and a disease be found - questions that are especially common when incomprehensible symptoms appear. The symptoms of the disease are similar to acute respiratory infections, but with the development of the disease, malaria becomes dangerous. Attacks provoke anemia, inflammation with damage to cells of the liver, kidneys, spleen. It is necessary to understand in detail the ways of infection and prevention of invasion.

Characteristics of the disease

female anopheles mosquito
female anopheles mosquito

Plasmodium malaria is a unicellular pathogenic microorganism that lives in human tissues. The culprit is a female anopheles mosquito, she can be seen in the photo. In nature, there are several types of parasites that infect malaria:

  1. Plasmodium vivax, ovale - three-day malaria;
  2. Malariae - four-day malaria
  3. Falciparum - tropical malaria
  4. Knowlesi is characterized by diurnal replication with severe subsequent disease upon re-invasion.

The disease has a recurrent type of development and, during treatment, requires especially careful therapy with stopping subsequent attacks. Patients are removed from the register only after 3 years of observation.

Sources of infection and where can you get infected?

malaria plasmodium
malaria plasmodium

Plasmodium malaria, as in the photo, belongs to the class of sporozoans such as Apicomplexa. Dangerous parasites are common in countries with temperate tropical, subtropical climates. The optimum temperature for the survival of mosquitoes is +16 C. The main habitats of mosquitoes with plasmodia:

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  • Europe, Brazil, Sri Lanka, India;
  • Coast of the Mediterranean, Red Seas;
  • Asian CIS countries;
  • Belarus, Russia (isolated cases of infection).

Plasmodium malaria is transmitted when:

  1. Anopheles mosquito bites;
  2. injections, blood transfusions;
  3. transplacental during pregnancy;
  4. from mother to newborn baby.

With the arrival of heat, the risk of infection increases: in summer and autumn, mosquitoes are actively breeding, which increases the likelihood of getting a bite. The disease has a characteristic feature: a mosquito that has bitten a carrier of the disease receives Plasmodium and becomes a carrier of the infection.

Development of malaria plasmodium

development of malaria plasmodium
development of malaria plasmodium

The life cycle of the development of the malarial plasmodium begins in the body of the female mosquito, and develops in the liver cells and in the blood of the human host:

  1. Sporosis is delivered to the host through the bite of the female;
  2. Parasites penetrate the liver cells, vascular and mucous membranes;
  3. They cause the destruction of red blood cells, impede the absorption of nutrients;
  4. Upon reaching puberty, they reproduce, causing the appearance of 20 new merozoites and form sex gamonts, which enter the blood of the female mosquito when the host bites.

Thus, the tissue and erythrocytic stages of development are distinguished. Reproduction of Plasmodium is asexual, therefore, parasites do not need to change the host to obtain offspring. After entering the stomach of a mosquito, malaria plasmodia develop to the level of puberty and multiply. An insect bite causes infection and the infection spreads through the host's tissues. The infection destroys the red blood cells and causes malaria attacks.

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Infection symptoms and diagnosis

feverish condition of the patient
feverish condition of the patient

The difficulty of identifying the symptoms of the disease is associated with their lack of expression at first. The incubation period is 7-14 days, sometimes symptoms appear after six months or more. The clinical picture of the invasion looks like this:

  • Chills, febrile state of the patient, sudden rise in temperature to 39 C;
  • Soreness of the joints of the neck, head, pain in the muscles;
  • Nausea, vomiting;
  • Heavy sweating;
  • Fatigue, weakness;
  • Skin discoloration: pallor, yellowing;
  • Change in appetite, there is an aversion to any food.

The same symptoms sometimes occur with ARVI, but if the patient has visited warm countries during the next six months, where the risk of infection is widespread, then you should consult a doctor. An analysis for the biochemical composition of blood will reveal the presence of pathology. The most informative diagnostics of malaria plasmodium are RDT and PCR tests.

Prevention methods

If an infection has occurred, then to prevent the disease, you should undergo a medical examination and start treatment on time. Unfortunately, the prevention of Plasmodium malaria is not always possible - a mosquito bite cannot be prevented. But there are options to reduce the risk of infection:

  1. Use creams and ointments to protect against insects;
  2. Equip windows and doors with mosquito nets;
  3. Disinfect injection equipment.

Of course, the best option is to drain the swamps and decontaminate water bodies, but for now you have to do it on your own. Infectious diseases caused by microbes endanger human life. And even if therapy is started on time, relapses of malaria (attacks) bring little pleasure. Lack of treatment will lead to erythrocyte thrombosis, blockage of blood vessels, damage to the circulatory system, digestion, and respiration. By causing the destruction of the blood composition, plasmodia provoke hypoxia of the cells of the liver, lungs, and brain. By reducing immunity, parasites provoke dysfunction of the supply organs, and this threatens a person with a lethal outcome.

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