Table of contents:
- 1 Methods for the diagnosis of giardiasis
- 2 Analysis of feces for lamblia
- 3 Analysis interpretation
The diagnosis of "giardiasis" is very often in recent years, given to preschool children and adults, able-bodied people. Giardiasis is a disease caused by a parasite that reproduces in the liver and small intestine of a person. Giardia, a very tenacious parasite, they are able to fully exist outside the host for two months. As soon as the parasite enters the body, new worms hatch from the cysts. Giardia cysts what it is, is not known to many, respectively, most people do not even know the route of infection, and cannot prevent it. Cysts are eggs of worms, they can be found in the feces of an infected person. Accordingly, in order to determine whether there is a parasite in the body, it is necessary to donate feces for lamblia.
Methods for diagnosing giardiasis
What is lamblia, people learn only when faced with unpleasant symptoms of the disease. Some even ask giardia if it is worms or not, because their name is more associated with some kind of algae or plants. Lamblia intestinalis are not worms, but they are also classified as a type of human parasite. They differ in the way they parasitize and in appearance.
In the human body, this parasite can fully exist in two forms - in the form of mobile parasites and in the form of cysts. Both forms are equally dangerous, because the parasite attached to the liver or intestines, over time, leads to mechanical destruction of the organ. The toxic substances secreted by worms violate the integrity of the organ and cause inflammatory processes.
It is possible to determine giardiasis whose photos are on medical sites using modern diagnostic methods. They include analysis for PCR, microscopic analysis of feces for lamblia, as well as examination of the contents of the duodenum for the presence of a mobile form of the parasite. Each of the techniques has its own characteristics and reliability of the results. For example, PCR analysis is able to determine the lamblia antigen in feces and in human blood. The body will secrete special antibodies that are produced only when a certain type of parasitic organism is affected, and it is they that are caught by this type of diagnosis.
Recently, more and more popularity is gaining a new way of how to get tested for lamblia. The diagnostic method is not the usual collection of feces and blood, but swallowing a nylon thread. The nylon thread is sealed in a gelatin capsule. A person swallows it, and once it gets into the intestine, the capsule dissolves. The existing lamblia in humans and their cysts adhere to the thread, which is then excreted in the feces. This thread is subsequently placed in a gametic container and is subject to laboratory study.
Analysis of feces for lamblia
What is Toxoplasma gondii and its life cycle
The analysis of feces for lamblia is very often prescribed precisely for young children, and all because the parasite multiplies very quickly in mass gatherings of people - in kindergartens and schools. Young children often ignore the rules of hygiene and pull everything into their mouths, respectively, they become carriers and distributors of the parasite.
An indication for carrying out such a procedure as analyzing feces for cysts of lamblia and an adult parasite is the presence of characteristic symptoms - diarrhea, bloating, pain in the navel, temperature jumps, disruption of the intestines and unreasonable loss of weight. Occasionally, lamblia cysts in the feces can be found incidentally, by microscopy of feces for another reason. There are a number of situations when the parasite behaves quite "quietly", without giving symptoms, while gradually destroying the organ.
The analysis for lamblia in a child and an adult is absolutely no different, the essence of the method is quite simple and clear. In the morning, the patient collects feces in a special container and carries it to the laboratory. Clinic staff detects or does not detect cysts of the parasite (what is Giardia cysts mentioned above). It is important to note that if you decide to pass feces tests, then only parasite eggs will be looked for in the material. Only a cyst is present in the feces; an adult migrates through the body along with the blood and clings to the mucous wall of the liver or intestines. It is possible to determine the presence of a vegetative form only with a biopsy.
How to correctly donate feces for lamblia is not known to many, therefore, very often patients are faced with the need to repeat the procedure. It is necessary to give up the use of fatty foods and alcoholic beverages a day before donating feces for lamblia. Also, a week before taking a feces test for lamblia, it is required to stop using medications. If you are sick with one of the systemic ailments, you need to consult your doctor. He will tell you on an individual basis which medications must be abandoned and which can be left. Some medications distort test results.
How much fecal analysis is done for lamblia, how to take it correctly, and when it is better to collect biomaterial, the laboratory staff will tell you in a preliminary consultation or the attending physician. Do not be ashamed to ask how correctly you prepare for the procedure, its results directly depend, and the effectiveness of further treatment.
How to take a stool test for opisthorchiasis?
The analysis of feces for Giardia should be carried out 10 hours after collection of the biomaterial, otherwise its results will be unreliable. Feces for antigen to lamblia, it is better to donate fresh, and the less time the biomaterial is outside the "host", the more accurate the results will be. Analysis of feces for lamblia in children and adults for accuracy is recommended for 3 days in the morning.
Laboratory staff know what lamblia looks like, and errors in diagnosis are excluded. Inaccuracies in microscopic examination may relate to the number of parasites. In microscopic examination, there are two types of results "negative" and "positive". In the case of PCR diagnostics, there are three types of results, the presence of a parasite is established by the ratio of antibodies to lamblia antigens. The results may include:
- negative analysis - up to 0.85 OPd;
- positive - Opd more than 1;
- dubious analysis - with an antibody level from 0.85 to one.
In the analyzes of PCR diagnostics of feces, there will also be Latin letters with immunoglobulins, they will not say anything to a person unfamiliar with medical terminology, but for a doctor it is a great storehouse of information. For example, if an IgM indicator is found in the analysis, it means that the infection took place two weeks ago, approximately. After this time, the IgM index is replaced by an IgG immunoglobulin. According to the nomenclature near the immunoglobulin, the doctor determines whether the disease passes in an acute form or in a chronic one.
Where to take a stool test, you can ask at the reception of the regional polyclinic. Today, in addition to public hospitals, there are many private laboratories that do analyzes much faster and with greater accuracy.
All organs in the human body are divided into important and additional ones. The liver and intestines play one of the main roles. Every day, the liver cleans the blood of toxic substances, and the intestines remove them from the body. It is for this reason that the liver and intestines need constant care, no less than the other organs. The best thing you can do for these organs is to get tested regularly for Giardia and other parasites. "New neighbors" can not only damage these organs, provoke dysfunction of other systems, but also lead to death.