Trematodes - Treatment In Humans: Causes And Types Of Parasites

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Trematodes - Treatment In Humans: Causes And Types Of Parasites
Trematodes - Treatment In Humans: Causes And Types Of Parasites

Video: Trematodes - Treatment In Humans: Causes And Types Of Parasites

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Helminths: Cestodes and Trematodes (transmission, clinical importance, and treatment) 2023, February
Anonim
  • 1 Causes and symptoms of trematodes
  • 2 Species of trematodes
  • 3 Treatment of trematodosis

    • 3.1 Medicines
    • 3.2 Folk remedies

Parasites from the fluke class are called trematodes. There are approximately 40 varieties of these parasites. Although trematodes in humans can lead to dangerous conditions and complications, before they enter our body, they must go a long way of preliminary development and maturation. In our article, we will consider the causes of this ailment, its symptoms, types of flukes and methods of treating this disease.

Causes and symptoms of trematodes

all flukes are flukes
all flukes are flukes

Since all flukes are flukes, they have an organ for fixation in the host's body. As a rule, this is the oral and abdominal suction cup. Moreover, each of them connects to the mouth, since food is carried out through them. The parasites have no anus, so their waste products exit through special excretory pores located at the lower extremity of the body.

The causes of trematodosis lie in the eating of fish and seafood by humans, which are infected with the larvae of this parasite. To protect yourself from invasion, you need to eat only high-quality fish and other seafood that have undergone sufficient heat treatment. The source of the eggs of this helminth is humans. They are excreted in his feces, but these eggs have to go a long way before they can become the cause of infection of another individual:

  1. When eggs with feces of a diseased person enter the external environment, they need a water environment for further development. Only there they will be able to transform into miracidium and become mobile thanks to the cilia that cover their body. It is worth adding that the eggs of worms can be in the soil for years and survive even subzero temperatures, waiting for the moment they enter the aquatic environment.
  2. After the miracidia become larvae, they penetrate the molluscs. A certain type of trematode infects a certain type of molluscs. In them, the parasite reaches the stage of cercaria.
  3. Cercariae can infect crabs, fish, shrimp and even some species of underwater plants. As for schistosomes, they can penetrate into the human body from water directly through the skin. But more often the inhabitants of the underwater world are affected, and a person becomes infected when they are eaten in case of insufficient processing.

After entering the human bloodstream, the parasite quickly spreads throughout the body, settles in the organs and begins its parasitic activity. A doctor should be consulted as soon as the first symptoms appear; a specialist should treat the ailment, since self-medication can contribute to the transition of the disease into a chronic form.

Since different types of flukes can inhabit the human body, the symptoms of trematodosis can vary significantly. However, there are several common signs of trematodes:

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  1. The patient develops all kinds of allergic reactions, accompanied by rashes on the skin, itching and sometimes the addition of a secondary infection.
  2. When examining blood by serological methods, it is possible to detect characteristic antibodies that are produced by the body in response to the causative agent of the disease.
  3. Since trematodes usually parasitize in the abdominal cavity, the patient is bothered by pain in the abdomen.
  4. On palpation of the abdomen, an enlarged liver and spleen can be felt.

The first symptoms of the disease may appear only a few months (3-4) after infection. Usually, the larvae of the parasite in the human body develop to the state of sexually mature individuals within 100 days. After that, they begin to actively multiply and the first signs of the disease appear.

Trematode species

hepatic fluke
hepatic fluke

In our latitudes, the following types of trematodes most dangerous to humans are found:

  • hepatic fluke causes dangerous liver pathologies, for example, cirrhosis (sometimes it settles in the ducts of the gallbladder, provoking no less serious complications);
  • pulmonary fluke is also called paragonim (it lives in the lungs, causes pain in this area and shortness of breath);
  • feline fluke less often affects humans and causes opisthorchiasis (its habitat is the pancreas and liver);
  • the Chinese fluke or clonorchus usually lives in the gallbladder and pancreas, provoking pancreatitis and gallstones, sometimes this parasite causes cirrhosis;
  • schistosomes are the only blood flukes that need a partner for reproduction (these parasites provoke varicose veins and malignant tumors of some organs).

Trematodosis treatment

the patient must pass feces for analysis
the patient must pass feces for analysis

To diagnose this disease, it is important not only to interview the patient about his food preferences and hygiene, but also to examine his family members. In addition, the patient must pass the following tests:

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  1. Stool analysis is especially important, since it is in the faeces that parasite eggs can be found, but this is possible if the helminths reach the stage of sexually mature individuals. As for schistosomes, they can be found in urine.
  2. UAC and biochemistry. In the KLA, eosinophilia and leukocytosis are detected. In blood biochemistry, characteristic changes in thymol and sublimate samples are observed, as well as a high concentration of liver enzymes.
  3. X-ray examination will help with localization of trematodes in the lungs. You also need to examine the sputum.
  4. With significant helminthic invasions in the liver, an ailment can be diagnosed using ultrasound.

Medications

medicinal preparations
medicinal preparations

The features of drug treatment are directly related to the type of fluke that caused the disease. In some forms of diseases, surgical treatment is indicated. The choice of the drug and the duration of therapy largely depend on the intensity of the invasion and the localization of the parasite:

  1. Chloxil is used to treat diseases caused by hepatic flukes. However, the high efficiency of therapy is observed only in the early stages, when the disease did not give complications. When hepatitis or cirrhosis occurs, special treatment is needed to restore organ function.
  2. To destroy the Chinese fluke, use the drug Fautin, Chloxin or Rezohin. Therapy aimed at normalizing the work of the biliary tract is mandatory.
  3. Chloxil is prescribed to get rid of the giant fluke. Patients must be prescribed drugs to strengthen the immune system. Since against the background of the defeat of this helminth, significant damage to the biliary tract and liver is observed, Emiten and Hexachloroethane are prescribed. To prevent the inflammatory process, the patient must undergo antibiotic therapy.
  4. If the disease was diagnosed at the initial stage, when the trematodes did not reach the state of sexually mature individuals, then Antimony is used for treatment. She very quickly and effectively destroys the larvae of this parasite.

Folk remedies

wormwood inflorescence powder
wormwood inflorescence powder

In the presence of different forms of trematodes, treatment can be carried out with the help of medicinal herbs:

  1. You need to prepare a powder from wormwood inflorescences. For this, the raw materials are simply crushed in a blender. This powder is taken 5 g three times a day before meals. It is usually sufficient to use this treatment for three days to completely destroy the parasites. Every day in the evening, be sure to take a laxative.
  2. You can prepare a decoction of tansy inflorescences. To do this, take 20 grams of a medicinal plant and fill it with boiling water (0.2 l). Insist until completely cooled under the lid. The infusion is also taken before meals three times a day in the amount of 1/3 cup.

Coriander seed therapy is no less effective. To dry them, the seeds are lightly fried in a pan. Raw materials are ground into powder. On the first day it is necessary to take 0.5 g of powder, the next day the dose is doubled, and on the following days of treatment (up to the eighth day) the dose is 1.5 g. The powder is consumed after meals after 1/3 hour

In order to prevent this ailment, you should not drink unboiled water from reservoirs, eat poorly fried fish and dubious seafood. By the way, all sushi lovers are at risk of contracting this type of helminthiasis. It is equally important to follow the rules of hygiene.

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