Table of contents:
Video: Tape Worms In Humans - Drug Treatment
- 1 Drug treatment of cestodoses
- 2 Albendazole
- 3 Niclosamide
- 4 Praziquantel
- 5 Prevention
Tapeworms are flatworms that can parasitize the human body. Worm infestation ranks third among the causes of mortality in people, second only to heart disease and oncology. Parasitic infections pose a great danger, therefore, it is necessary to start fighting them when the first symptoms of such diseases appear. The diseases caused by these helminths are called cestodoses. Treatment of tapeworms must be carried out under the supervision of a physician.
Drug treatment of cestodoses
Many parasites are not so easy to remove from the body, often the pills are ineffective against them. For example, with echinococcosis, most often the best option is surgery, with the help of which cystic formations are removed. It is also quite difficult to get rid of the dwarf tapeworm, even taking into account the size of the parasite, already clear from its name.
A particular difficulty in the treatment of such helminths lies in the strength of their fixation in the host's body. In addition, drugs for tapeworms should be well combined with symptomatic therapy, which can be carried out with antihistamines, antispasmodics, pain relievers, sedatives, immunostimulating and vitamin medicines. In this case, the patient must adhere to a special diet in compliance with the drinking regime.
The most effective drugs for the drug treatment of tapeworms are:
These funds have other common names - nemazol, fenasal and biltricid, respectively. Each of them is worth considering separately.
This drug is used for trichocephalosis, giardiasis, ascariasis, filariasis and other diseases caused by parasites in the body. Albendazole was developed in 1975 and is now listed on the World Health Organization's main list of medicines.
The principle of action of the drug is that it acts in a degenerating manner on the cells of the intestine of the worm. In the process of suppressing tubulin polymerization, the cellular cytoplasmic microtubules of the intestinal tract of the parasite are destroyed. The basis of the effect of albendazole is a change in biochemical processes: glucose utilization slows down, ATP synthesis is inhibited, the movement of secretory granules is blocked along with other organelles present in the muscle cells of the parasite. These changes are the reason for the death of the worm.
Pinworm candles and rules for their use
Side effects of the drug include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, febrile symptoms, abdominal pain, temporary hair loss. Also, sometimes there may be cramps, sore throat, vision problems, yellowing of the skin and eyeballs, darkening of urine, changes in mood. Allergic reactions are possible. In rare cases, acute liver failure has been observed.
This drug has been known since 1959. Niclosamide has a detrimental effect on bovine and dwarf tapeworms, broad tapeworm and other cestodes. It has no special effect on other types of helminths. Also on the WHO List of Essential Medicines.
Its action is due to the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria of worms, which leads to the depletion of energy reserves. In addition, direct contact with niclosamide paralyzes worms and reduces their resistance to gastrointestinal enzymes. Its last property allows some of the dead parasites to break down, and their remains with feces to be removed outside.
Contraindications to the use of the drug are gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, anemia, individual intolerance, impaired functioning of the kidneys and liver. With teniasis, niclosamide is rarely used, since in this case there is a risk of cysticercosis formation.
Among the side effects of this drug are observed:
- Nausea and vomiting;
- Stomach pain and cramps;
- Skin rash;
- Allergic reactions.
With the gradual adaptation of the body to the medicine, some side effects tend to disappear. Alcohol may worsen side effects.
Candles for worms for children and adults
The drug was developed in the 70s of the twentieth century. Included in the WHO List of Essential Medicines. When tapeworms are found in a person, treatment is most often successful for them.
Praziquantel is completely absorbed from the intestine into the bloodstream. After a day, for the most part, it is excreted in the urine, some of it in the feces. In parasites, on contact with small doses of the drug, muscle spasms occur, leading to paralysis, which, in turn, leads to death. In the case of the use of a high concentration of praziquantel, the parasites show damage to the outer cover, which increases the probability of their destruction.
The drug is not recommended for women during pregnancy and lactation, children under 4 years of age, as well as for individual drug intolerance. Praziquantel is contraindicated in liver disease and ocular cysticercosis.
Side effects of the drug are:
- Nausea and vomiting;
- Stomach ache;
- Temperature increase;
- Muscle pain;
Rare manifestations of side effects include impaired coordination, which leads to a cautious attitude towards taking the drug if it is necessary to drive vehicles and work requiring increased attention. Allergic reactions are possible, especially after taking large doses of the drug.
The listed remedies work well against fluke tapeworms and many other parasites.
Prevention of infection with tapeworms consists in observing personal hygiene measures, using only boiled or purified water, the correct organization of sewage pits, latrines, sewer communications. In addition, it is necessary to exclude factors that can lead to invasion by a specific type of parasite:
- Wide tapeworm - salting and thorough heat treatment of fish;
- Echinococcus - ensuring that domestic and service dogs undergo regular examinations for parasites, control the quality of meat;
- Pork tapeworm - heat treatment of pork during cooking, improving the conditions for keeping pigs;
- Dwarf tapeworm - enhanced control of insects that carry the eggs of the parasite.
Preventive measures are very important, and their compliance requires much less all kinds of costs than it will take to treat the human body from parasites. And in the absence of timely detection of the problem and treatment of tapeworms in humans, helminthiasis can lead to extremely dangerous consequences, including death.