Tests For Ureaplasma: Decoding, How And When To Take

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Tests For Ureaplasma: Decoding, How And When To Take
Tests For Ureaplasma: Decoding, How And When To Take

Video: Tests For Ureaplasma: Decoding, How And When To Take

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Bacteria 9 A-D: Mycoplasma & Ureaplasma (Disease, Presentation, Labs, Treatment) 2023, February
Anonim
Sowing cups
Sowing cups

Ureaplasmosis is an infectious disease. It is caused by very small microorganisms. The name of the disease was given by the name of the pathogen - ureaplasma. It is classified as a conditionally pathogenic microflora that can live in the human body for a long time and not cause discomfort by its presence (carriage).

Decreased immunity, hypothermia, wasting diseases can provoke an increase in its colony. A large number of bacteria, causing significant harm to the body, causes the disease - ureaplasmosis.

To make a diagnosis, if you suspect this disease, you need to take an analysis for ureaplasma.

Content

  1. Characteristics of the causative agent of ureaplasmosis
  2. Ways of transmission of the disease
  3. Diagnostic methods and interpretation of analyzes
  4. Indications for laboratory tests for ureaplasmosis
  5. Preparatory phase and sampling
  6. Diagnostic methods and research material
  7. Bacterial culture
  8. Polymerase chain reaction - PCR
  9. Immunoassay - ELISA
  10. Decoding tests for ureaplasma
  11. Output

Characteristics of the causative agent of ureaplasmosis

The causative agent Ureaplasma spp. ("Species", translated from Latin into Russian - common), belongs to the mycoplasma family (Mycoplasmataceae).

Ureaplasma itself is divided into two subspecies:

  1. parvum (small);
  2. urealyticum (dissolving urea).

For diagnosis and treatment, it is enough to identify one of the types of microorganism. But most often U. spp appears in the results.

In the human body, these bacteria feel best inside the cells of the mucous membranes:

Among women In men
Vaginas Urethra
Cervical canal of the cervix Prostate
In the cavity of the uterus itself Bladder
Fallopian tubes Testicles
Urethra Epididymis
Bladder In sperm

In connection with the defeat of sperm, ureaplasmosis often becomes the cause of male infertility.

Ways of transmission of the disease

In 2006, the World Health Organization included ureaplasmosis among sexually transmitted diseases, based on the main route of transmission - sexual.

In the cells of the epithelium of these organs, the ureaplasma multiplies and causes an inflammatory reaction.

In addition, if a pregnant woman is sick with ureaplasmosis, then the disease can be transmitted vertically - from the mother to the fetus, since the pathogen is able to penetrate the blood-placental barrier.

The incubation period lasts 3-5 weeks. It depends on the state of the infected person's immune system.

Diagnostic methods and interpretation of analyzes

Indications for laboratory tests for ureaplasmosis

  1. In order to find out the etiology of inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system;
  2. With a diagnosed disease in a sexual partner;
  3. In persons who have promiscuous sexual relations, to identify sexually transmitted diseases;
  4. For victims of sexual abuse, after being abused, to identify or exclude sexually transmitted diseases;
  5. With male infertility;
  6. In case of abortions, congenital abnormalities of newborns, premature births - for women and babies;
  7. When planning a pregnancy;
  8. During pregnancy;
  9. With medical examination and preventive examinations.

Preparatory phase and sampling

  1. It is strongly discouraged to take any antimicrobial drugs within one month prior to laboratory diagnostic tests. Indeed, to identify pathological agents, a sufficient number of microorganisms in the biomaterial is needed.
  2. In men, a smear of the urethra is taken no earlier than 2 hours after urination. Before taking a smear, a man should not have sexual intercourse for 24-48 hours. It is recommended to take a shower the night before. Before the very fence, the penis is washed with soap, treated with sterile saline, the doctor inserts a sterile probe into the urethra a few centimeters deep and makes light rotational movements. Then he places the instrument in a special sterile, sealed disposable container and sends it to the laboratory.
  3. Taking a smear (scraping) in women:

    • During menstruation, this material is not suitable for analysis.
    • Within 72 hours before taking, you can not use vaginal suppositories, tampons, spermicides, douching.
    • 48 hours before taking the material, exclude biopsy, ultrasound studies using a vaginal probe, colposcopy.
    • For 24 hours before taking the scrapings, you must not have sexual intercourse.
    • Women come to get tested after antibiotic treatment: after 14 days for bacterial culture and after 1 month for PCR.
  4. When taking blood, the patient must visit the laboratory in the morning and submit the material. The analysis is carried out on an empty stomach. That is, after 7 pm the day before, you can not eat anything, and you can only drink water. In the morning you cannot drink, eat, smoke. In order for the analysis to be reliable, stress and physical activity should not be experienced before donating blood. That is, do not walk, do not run, etc.
  5. Urine collection for analysis is also carried out in the morning. It is better that this was the first morning urine after sleep - the concentration of microorganisms in it will be maximum. The container is filled with 50-60 ml. average portion of urine.

Diagnostic methods and research material

Three main laboratory research methods are used, which make it possible to diagnose with complete confidence that the microorganism is present or absent in the body of the examined person. The methods complement each other and most often one person is carried out 2 of them simultaneously - for the reliability of the diagnosis.

Bacterial culture

Material for research:

  • scrapings from the vagina, urethral canal, cervix;
  • urine (not very informative material in this case).

The biomaterial is sown on nutrient media, placed in an incubator - a special apparatus where conditions favorable for the development of microorganisms are maintained, identical to the human body. After 4-8 days, remove the inoculated dishes and determine the type of inoculated microorganism. He is the causative agent of the inflammatory disease of those organs from which the material for sowing was taken.

When conducting the analysis, sowing is done on the ureaplasma with the determination of the sensitivity of the seeded microflora to specific antibacterial drugs. There will be no growth of microorganisms around the paper disk soaked with a specific antibiotic. This means the drug is effective for treatment. If the growth of microorganisms around the disc is present, then such a drug has resistance in the pathogen and is not suitable for treatment.

Sowing results for ureaplasma
Sowing results for ureaplasma

This method is very informative. He identifies the causative agent of the infection, and determines which antibiotic will be effective for its treatment.

Polymerase chain reaction - PCR

Method for the determination of ureaplasma DNA. It is carried out with real-time detection. DNA U.urealyticum / U. parvum - is a marker of the presence of the pathogen in the genitourinary system. Determines the degree of seeding of body cells with this pathogen. Therefore, it is defined as quantitative analysis. Also, this method is considered qualitative, because it accurately determines the presence of a microorganism, if its amount in the material is even very small.

  • In men, a urethral smear is taken.
  • In women, a smear of the urethra, cervical canal, vagina is taken.

The result has one of two formulations:

"Discovered"

The result shows the presence of a DNA fragment of this type of ureaplasma in the samples taken from the patient. That is, this person is infected.

"Not found"

There is no pathogen in the body.

PCR results
PCR results

If ureaplasma DNA is detected and there are no symptoms, then the subject is the carrier of the infection.

The sensitivity of the method is estimated at 98%. The result has maximum confidence.

The analysis time is from 4 to 24 hours. It depends on what reagents are used during the analysis.

The rate of ureaplasma in a smear in women
The rate of ureaplasma in a smear in women

The analysis has the following characteristics:

  • Get results quickly.
  • Accuracy and reliability at a high level.
  • Unfortunately, the probability of false positive and false negative answers remains (2%).
  • Statement of the presence of a pathogen, but lack of information about its activity.

Immunoassay - ELISA

For this analysis, a blood sample is taken. It is distributed on a special strip containing ureaplasma antigens. Antibodies to the pathogen are determined. If they are, then the body is familiar with this infection and its pathogens have penetrated into its cells. After all, the production of highly specific proteins - antibodies, is carried out by the immune system in response to a specific agent, only in the case of "getting to know him".

ELISA for ureaplasma and mycoplasma
ELISA for ureaplasma and mycoplasma

The study is carried out no more than a day, but in two stages, the interval between which is 10 days.

The method is not very informative. May be inaccurate. It is carried out as an addition to one of those listed above.

An example of ELISA results for ureaplasmosis, trichomoniasis, chlamydia and mycoplasmosis
An example of ELISA results for ureaplasmosis, trichomoniasis, chlamydia and mycoplasmosis

Decoding tests for ureaplasma

  1. ELISA as a result shows the antigen titer. Normal indicators can be interpreted when opposite it in the form is marked "norm".
  2. With the results of PCR, the norm is considered to be less than 10 to the 4th degree CFU per 1 ml. If the titer values ​​are higher, then this indicates pathology. An indicator of more than 10 to the 6th degree requires treatment.
  3. As a result of cultural analysis - bacteriological inoculation, a specific causative agent of the disease identified on nutrient media is noted, its quantity and the effectiveness of antibiotics in relation to this microorganism. The method determines the reaction of the inoculated pathogen to the antibiotics present, which are impregnated with small paper disks placed on a nutrient medium. This helps to prescribe the drug that is most effective for treatment.

Output

Very often, ureaplasmosis accompanies other infectious and sexually transmitted diseases, such as syphilis, gonorrhea, AIDS, Hepatitis B, herpes and others. It is important to consult a specialist on time, take the necessary tests and receive treatment. Ureaplasmosis is a dangerous sexually transmitted disease that leads to infertility and adversely affects overall health.

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