Types Of Worms In A Person With A Photo, Symptoms And Treatment With Pills

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Types Of Worms In A Person With A Photo, Symptoms And Treatment With Pills
Types Of Worms In A Person With A Photo, Symptoms And Treatment With Pills

Video: Types Of Worms In A Person With A Photo, Symptoms And Treatment With Pills

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Video: Microbiology of Parasites 2023, February
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Types of human worms on the diagram
Types of human worms on the diagram

Helminths (worms) are a huge class of parasitic worms that live in the body of humans, animals and plants. Helminths, parasitic worms, feeding on the internal resources of the "host" organism, not only weaken the organism itself, but also contribute to the development of other concomitant diseases.

Oddly enough, but almost every second person is a carrier of one of the types of helminths and does not even know about it until complications appear or an additional examination is carried out.

Depending on the climatic zones, different worms live on the territories of different continents. About 20 species of worms live on the territory of the Russian Federation.

Where are the worms hiding in the human body
Where are the worms hiding in the human body

Also, helminths are subdivided according to the mode of transmission from body to body:

  • biohelminths - transmitted from animals;
  • contagious - transmitted from a sick person;
  • geohelminths - larvae are stored in the soil.

When the larvae enter the body, they move through the body with the blood stream and settle in the organs.

Most often, helminths settle in different parts of the intestine.

Classification by the place of settlement of the parasites:

  • luminal helminths - settle in hollow organs;
  • tissue - placed in tissues;
  • others can live in hollow organs and in the thickness of tissues.

Content

  1. Symptoms of worms in humans
  2. Roundworms (nematodes)
  3. Pinworms
  4. Ascaris
  5. Vlasoglav
  6. Trichinella
  7. Toksokara
  8. Tapeworms (cestodes)
  9. Wide ribbon
  10. Bovine tapeworm
  11. Pork tapeworm
  12. Echinococcus
  13. Flukes (trematodes)
  14. Cat fluke
  15. Schistosomes
  16. Hookworm
  17. Diagnostic methods
  18. Preventive actions
  19. Why are worms dangerous for the human body
  20. Tablets for worms
  21. Vermox
  22. Wormin
  23. Dekaris
  24. Pirantel
  25. Vermazole

Symptoms of worms in humans

Symptoms of worms in an adult
Symptoms of worms in an adult

The appearance of symptoms in the body can be recognized by the following symptoms:

  • acute stage - manifests itself a couple of days or weeks after infection and is the body's response to the introduction of a foreign parasite and to its waste products;
  • chronic form. The infection becomes chronic after a fairly long time.

Symptoms of the acute stage may appear on the second day or after 6 months, but more often after 2 weeks:

  • high temperature;
  • yellowness with liver damage;
  • muscle pain;
  • inflammation of the lymph nodes;
  • enlargement of the spleen and liver;
  • swelling of the face;
  • there are even nervous disorders.

With the transition of the disease into a chronic form, the following symptoms appear:

  • anemia;
  • organ abscesses;
  • depletion of the body;
  • decreased immunity.

Roundworms (nematodes)

Pinworms

Pinworms are representatives of roundworms, they are round in shape, about 2 centimeters long. Found in both adults and children. They settle in the small intestine and develop from larval stage to adult in 2 weeks. Pinworms cause enterobiasis disease.

Pinworm infection is manifested by inflammation of the intestinal walls, digestive processes are disrupted, worm toxins cause local hemorrhages.

Pinworm structure
Pinworm structure

Enterobiasis is manifested by evening itching in the anus. Itching is caused by females that lay eggs. When combing the itch, the eggs fall under a person's nails and, thus, transfer to surrounding objects.

Pinworms can become infected not only by contact with common objects with an infected person, but also through vegetables in the garden (eggs are stored in the soil), cockroaches and flies - carriers of worm eggs.

With enterobiasis in women, parasites can cause inflammation of the genitals. Also, scratching becomes inflamed, which leads to staphylococcus.

Ascaris

Roundworms are roundworms that grow up to 40 centimeters and about 6 centimeters in diameter. Ascaris eggs, when they enter the soil, can be stored there for about a year before entering a favorable environment for development. When the roundworm larva enters the host's body and begins to develop, it releases toxins that affect the lungs and liver. The larva travels throughout the body and affects the vessels and causes inflammatory foci. It settles in the intestine and lives off its contents. It can lay several thousand eggs per day.

Types of parasites in humans
Types of parasites in humans

Due to their considerable size, roundworms in search of food can move into the ducts of the pancreas, bile ducts of the liver, cause inflammatory bowel processes, can get out into the esophagus and block the airways. Causes a disease such as ascariasis.

The presence of roundworm in the body can be recognized by the following symptoms:

  • nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain;
  • fatigue
  • diarrhea, red worms in feces;
  • allergic reactions.

Roundworms tend to curl up into a ball, while intestinal obstruction occurs, and as a result - peritonitis.

Vlasoglav

Vlasoglav
Vlasoglav

The next representative of roundworms is the whipworm. Their length is 5 centimeters. It has an unusual shape - the main part is thin, and the short part is wide. The presence of whipworm in the human body can cause trichocephalosis.

The main mode of infection is through dirty hands and eggs are stored in the soil. The presence of a whipworm in the body leads to trichocephalosis and is manifested by symptoms:

  • abdominal pain, decreased appetite;
  • diarrhea gives way to constipation;
  • sometimes an admixture of blood in the feces;
  • Iron-deficiency anemia.

Trichinella

Trichinella is a worm 5 millimeters long. Affects a person with food, in particular with poorly cooked meat. It settles in the small intestine and multiplies there. With the blood flow, the larvae spread throughout the body.

Trichinella
Trichinella

Trichinella leads to the disease trichinosis with symptoms:

  • loss of appetite;
  • dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • stomach ache;
  • nausea, vomiting.

If treatment is not carried out, then the symptoms only worsen. Allergy develops in the form of urticaria, rash, gives complications to the respiratory, nervous, cardiovascular systems.

Toksokara

This type of roundworm lives in the stomach of dogs and with feces the eggs fall on the soil. Outwardly, the parasite is similar to the roundworm, but only grows up to 15 centimeters. The full life cycle of toxocara takes place in the dog's body, therefore, getting into a favorable human environment, the larvae die, but they manage to harm. Muscles, liver, lungs, heart, eye tissues, brain are affected, the disease of toxocariasis develops.

Toksokara
Toksokara

The activity of toxocar larvae in the body is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • temperature increase;
  • enlarged lymph nodes and liver;
  • skin rash;
  • infiltrates in the lungs;
  • shortness of breath, dry wheezing, cough;
  • mental disorder and convulsions;
  • a blood test shows the presence of eosinophils.

You can confirm the diagnosis by scraping the affected area of ​​the skin, a blood test for antibodies, and liver biopsy.

Tapeworms (cestodes)

Cestodes (tapeworms, wide worms) settle in the intestines, and the larvae can spread throughout the body.

Wide ribbon

The broad tapeworm reaches 10 meters in length. With the help of slits on the head, it is attached to the intestinal surface. It enters the human body with raw freshwater fish in the form of a larva and fully develops within a month. Causes the disease diphyllobothriasis.

The structure of tapeworms
The structure of tapeworms

Symptomatically, the presence of a parasite in the body manifests itself as follows:

  • vitamin deficiency with a deficiency of vitamin B12, folic acid;
  • vomiting, nausea, diarrhea;
  • disorders of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • depletion of the body;
  • temperature increase.

This parasite feeds by absorbing nutrients from the surface of its entire considerable body. Necrosis develops at the site of attachment of a wide tapeworm. In the feces, segments appear (contain eggs) of the worm and its eggs.

Bovine tapeworm

Bovine tapeworm (tapeworm) lives in the small intestine and reaches 7 meters in length. Bovine tapeworm larvae infect humans by eating undercooked beef. Larvae are easy to spot in meat as they are about 5 mm in size. Once in the human body, the larva grows in 3 months. It reproduces with the help of segments, which contain up to 150 thousand larvae. There are about 2 thousand such segments on the body of a bovine tapeworm. These segments independently leave the anus at night and spread through the bed.

The presence of this worm can lead to teniarinhoses disease, which is manifested by symptoms:

  • depletion of the body;
  • bowel disorder;
  • loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting;
  • allergic reactions.
Bovine and pork tapeworm
Bovine and pork tapeworm

Pork tapeworm

Pork tapeworm can be confused with bovine, but its dimensions are more modest - 2.5 meters. And the number of segments in this parasite is also smaller - about 1 thousand. The head of the worm has suction cups and a proboscis with hooks, with which it is attached to the intestine. The segments do not have the ability to attach to the walls of the intestine, so they leave with feces.

You can get infected through raw meat and lard. This helminth leads to diseases of teniasis and cysticercosis. Symptoms depend on the number of worms in the body. A large number of parasites can lead to intestinal blockage, which can only be treated with surgery.

Echinococcus

Pets (dogs, cats) can share parasites such as echinococcus with their human family. Causes the disease echinococcosis. The eggs of this helminth are attached to the animal's fur outside from the feces. This tiny worm has only 4 segments.

The parasite enters the human body through unboiled water, unwashed forest berries and garden vegetables, when the animal is stroked, the eggs of the worm pass into the hands of a person, but can also settle in the brain, bones, kidneys.

Echinococcus
Echinococcus

With the blood flow, the larvae of the worm enter the lungs and liver. Having settled in a certain organ, the parasite forms bubbles, around which a cyst grows, which squeezes the organ during growth and disrupts its functional abilities. There are larvae inside the cyst. Compression of an organ by a cyst can lead to its necrosis.

Symptoms depend on where the parasite has settled, which organ is damaged. Most often, a cyst can be detected using an ultrasound scan. Concomitant symptoms when localized in the right side of the liver: symptoms of cholecystitis, pain in the side. If the cyst is in the left side of the liver, then there is heartburn, vomiting, belching. When the bile ducts are affected, jaundice appears.

Rupture of the cyst is manifested by an allergic reaction, up to anaphylactic shock.

Flukes (trematodes)

Cat fluke

The representative of this class of helminths is the cat fluke. This type of worms in children is common in the area of ​​water bodies. The eggs of the worms with feces fall into the water, in which they infect mollusks and fish. Poor heat treatment or insufficiently salted fish contributes to human infection with opisthorchiasis caused by feline fluke.

Cat fluke
Cat fluke

With the blood flow, the parasite spreads into the bile ducts, liver, pancreas, gallbladder. The acute phase depends on the location of the infection:

  • weakness;
  • allergy;
  • inflammation of the bile ducts;
  • yellowness of the skin is possible;
  • vomiting, nausea;
  • pain throughout the body;
  • bowel disorder;
  • tremor of the limbs.

Without treatment, after a month, the symptoms are weakened, but this means that the disease has become chronic. Worms are attached to the mucous membranes with the help of suckers, and inflammation develops at the attachment site. With a large number of worms and eggs, the ducts become clogged and inflammatory processes, abscesses, organ dysfunctions, and liver cirrhosis develop.

Schistosomes

Schistosomes (blood flukes) a person becomes infected through the pores of the skin upon contact with contaminated fresh water. They are the causative agent of schistosomiasis. Unlike other parasites, schistosomes live in the venous system, where they multiply.

Schistosoma-adult
Schistosoma-adult

This type of parasite is more common in Africa, South America, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. The worm reaches 26 millimeters in length, and up to 0.6 millimeters in volume.

Symptoms of infection appear as a reaction to worm eggs:

  • enlargement of the spleen, lymph nodes;
  • bowel disorder.

Symptoms are slightly different depending on the location of the schistosome accumulation:

  • in the bladder - inflammation, abdominal pain, blood in the urine;
  • in the intestine - polyps appear, diarrhea;
  • in the liver - an increase in the spleen, liver, ascites;
  • in the nervous system - headaches, amnesia, disorientation.

Hookworm

The hookworm roundworm is also common in Africa and East Asia. It is the causative agent of hookworm infection. Habitat - duodenum. The length of the worm is about 14 millimeters. It feeds on nutrients that it extracts from the bitten intestinal wall. A person can become infected not only through unwashed vegetables and dirty hands, but also through the skin when working with the ground, when walking barefoot on the grass. The parasite travels through the blood vessels to the liver, lungs, and heart.

Hookworm
Hookworm

Hookworm infection is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • belching, nausea, heartburn, vomiting, diarrhea;
  • headaches, dizziness;
  • cough, shortness of breath, pneumonia, heart pain;
  • fast fatigue, chronic fatigue.

Ankylostomosis causes complications: hepatitis, duodenal ulcer, bronchitis, laryngitis, endocarditis. You can verify the diagnosis using blood tests, fluorography, x-rays.

Diagnostic methods

Since the symptoms of infection with different types of worms are also different, certain diagnostic methods have been developed. First of all, the doctor collects the patient's anamnesis. Then blood, urine, bile, feces, sputum, skin scrapings and biopsies of internal organs are tested. Also, to clarify the diagnosis, ultrasound, MRI, and fluorography are shown.

Preventive actions

The main and indisputable condition for the prevention of infection with helminths is frequent washing of hands, vegetables, berries. Prevention of worms in pets will also protect a person from infection. Good food preparation will neutralize the eggs of worms if they are present in fish and meat. When working in the garden, it is better to use gloves.

Prevention of worms
Prevention of worms

Why are worms dangerous for the human body

Worms are quite common in children and the reason for this is unwashed hands, unwashed foods, poorly cooked meat and fish dishes.

The most common danger of worms to humans is not treatment. So, without treatment, the parasite can reach its maximum size and block the intestines with its body, which leads to blockage. With small sizes of helminths, so many of them can breed, a hundred can also block the intestines, ducts …

Tablets for worms

Treatment of worms is a whole complex of measures, consisting not only of drugs, but also of a diet. If one of the family members has worms, all should be treated as a preventive measure. In addition, different types of worms need different drugs, so now we will analyze what drugs to take with worms.

Vermox

Vermox
Vermox

The Vermox drug successfully copes with most parasites, it can be said to be a pill for all worms. It works best for ascariasis, trichocephalosis, enterobiasis, teniasis, echinococcosis. The most non-toxic of a number of antiparasitic drugs and has the fewest side effects. As a rule, antihelminthic drugs are prescribed once. If necessary, repeat the procedure after 3 weeks.

Wormin

Wormin
Wormin

Wormin also acts on many helminths. It successfully treats enterobiasis, ascariasis, echinococcosis, trichinosis. Wormin and Vermox are analogs and are based on one active substance - mebendazole.

Dekaris

Dekaris
Dekaris

The active substance of decaris is levamisole. Cope only with some worms - roundworms, pinworms. It is prescribed for trichocephalosis, ascariasis, ankylostomiasis, enterobiasis.

Pirantel

Pirantel
Pirantel

Pirantel is an antihelminthic drug with the active substance pyrantel pamoat. This drug not only removes the worms themselves from a person, but also their eggs and larvae. It is prescribed for the treatment of pinworms, for ascariasis, ankylostomiasis, toxocariasis.

Vermazole

Vermazole for children
Vermazole for children

The drug vermazole is intended to eliminate pinworms and whipworms. It is prescribed for enterobiasis, teniasis. It is also prescribed for preventive purposes to all family members if parasites are found in one of them.

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