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Video: Teniosis: Symptoms And Treatment
Humanity has known about helminthic infections for hundreds of years, and every year the number of infected people only increases. One of the dangerous helminthic invasions is teniasis, the causative agent of which is pork tapeworm. Complications of this disease can affect internal organs and the brain, which will be fatal. Therefore, the symptoms of teniasis should be recognized in a timely manner in order to immediately begin treatment.
- What is teniasis?
- Symptoms of teniasis
- Folk remedies
- Diagnosis of teniasis
What is teniasis?
It is customary to call teniosis an intestinal parasitic infection caused by a pork chain (tapeworm). The disease belongs to the group of cestodoses, characterized by the sequential development of the parasite with a change of host, that is:
- a Finn larva appears from the egg - this occurs in the body of an animal, which is considered to be an intermediate host;
- getting into the human body (first into the stomach and then into the intestine), the Finn turns into an adult worm and acquires a permanent host.
It also happens that the human body can become an intermediate host. This happens when parasitic larvae enter the human bloodstream, which will spread through the ducts to various organs. This infection mechanism is called cysticercosis. This extraintestinal disorder can affect skeletal muscle, lungs, brain, skin and eyes.
Infection with teniasis occurs when pig meat is eaten, which has not undergone appropriate heat treatment and contains cysticercus larvae of the parasitic microorganism. Once in the body of the final host, cysticercus is introduced into the mucous membrane of the small intestine and begins to develop. In this case, a person becomes potentially dangerous, since he can infect others and himself with cysticercosis, which is difficult to treat. The differences between teniasis and cysticercosis are that the latter is a complication of a parasitic infection and can spread throughout the body.
The disease is extremely widespread, but rather uneven. In countries where the consumption of pork is minimized - teniasis is practically not found, and in areas with developed extensive pig farming - the infection of the livestock is quite high. The main foci of parasitic infection are African (Zaire, Nigeria, Cameroon), Latin American (Mexico, Colombia, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras) and Asian (North China, India, South Korea) territories.
Symptoms of teniasis
The symptoms of the presence of pork tapeworm in the body are quite diverse. It also happens that the signs of the disease are so insignificant that they are simply not paid attention to. Intestinal teniosis is characterized by the following symptoms:
- inflammatory bowel disease;
- nausea and vomiting;
- rapid weight loss;
- lack of appetite;
- diarrhea or, conversely, constipation;
- stomach ache;
- dizziness and weakness;
- fast fatiguability;
- itching in the anus;
- anemia (rare).
Sometimes the parasite does not make itself felt for quite a long time, teniasis proceeds without visible signs, and the presence of the parasite in the body manifests itself only when testing is done.
Treatment of teniasis is carried out exclusively in stationary conditions, since there is a risk of developing cysticercosis.
Drugs anthelmintic series promoting the death of pork tapeworm, for the treatment of teniasis can not be used - the intestines begin to digest the victim of the parasite and its eggs hexacanth can reach the mucosa or infiltrate his wall and, in the future, following the blood flow path, to get to the different organs …
The most effective and safe are drugs that paralyze the muscles of the helminth. Such an effect on the pork tapeworm leads to its immobilization, which contributes to the unhindered removal of the parasite from the intestines in a natural way. Among the drugs that have a similar effect, there are:
- derivatives of praziquantel;
- Antimonyl sodium tartrate;
- Ditrazine citrate;
After using the antiparasitic drug, after a while (mainly 1-3 hours), it is necessary to take a saline laxative to remove the immobilized pork tapeworm through the rectum.
Treatment of teniasis with folk remedies is justified only if the infected person cannot take medicines for any good reason. Before self-medication, you must take a set of measures:
- two days you must adhere to a special diet (table number 13);
- the day before, you should take a saline laxative;
- folk remedies are recommended to be consumed exclusively on an empty stomach.
To get rid of the parasite are used:
- Pumpkin seeds - contain cucurbitin, which paralyzes the muscles of the helminth, after which the immobilized pork tapeworm quickly dies. Treatment with seeds is as follows: in the evening, 500 grams of the product must be poured with water (the seeds must be covered with water) and sent to a water bath for two hours. The next day, consume all the seeds along with the decoction. After three hours, it is recommended to take a saline laxative, and after another 30 minutes, use an enema. After the procedures carried out, the helminth will freely leave the body.
- Male fern extract is rich in phenolic compounds that can immobilize the pork tapeworm, after which its death occurs. The required dose of the agent is calculated based on the age and weight of the infected person, in accordance with the generally accepted doses indicated in pharmaceutical directories.
- Chanterelles. The mushrooms contain D-mannose. This substance belongs to the group of polysaccharides and has the ability to penetrate the membrane, blocking the nerve endings of the parasite. Once immobilized, the pork tapeworm quickly dies and leaves the body naturally.
When self-medicating a parasitic disease, it is important to remember that such measures, although they get rid of the parasite, have rather high risks for re-infection. It, in turn, is very painful and sometimes fatal.
Diagnosis of teniasis
It is necessary to diagnose teniasis as early as possible in order to start getting rid of the worm in time and to protect yourself from possible complications.
If you suspect the presence of pork tapeworm in the body, you should consult a parasitologist. A specialist, having studied the history of the disease, and, based on the symptoms, will be able to make a preliminary diagnosis. To confirm it, the following laboratory procedures can be assigned:
- General blood analysis.
- Microscopic examination of feces. This procedure is extremely important, because it allows you to identify the eggs of teniasis under a microscope, but it is not always reliable - sometimes eggs with a similar structure belong to another helminth - a bovine tapeworm that causes teniarinhoses. For the correct diagnosis of the disease, such a study is repeated several times until the segments of the helminth are found in the feces - they are different in the pork and bovine tapeworm, therefore, after microscopy, it is possible to accurately diagnose the infection.
- Perianal scraping - used to detect annular segments.
- Immunoassay - allows you to identify the antigens of the pork tapeworm in the feces and blood of the infected.
- Immunoelectrophoresis. Carrying out this procedure, there is a possibility of detecting antibodies to the parasite antigen. But there is a high chance of cross-reaction with antigens of other parasites, which makes it difficult to make a diagnosis.
- X-ray and scopy.
Sometimes, to exclude diseases of the gastrointestinal tract of nonparasitic origin (cholecystitis, gastroenteritis, Crohn's disease), as well as the possibility of damage by other intestinal helminths, a thorough differential diagnosis is carried out.
Teniosis is a rather insidious disease that is easier to prevent than to cure. In order to avoid infection with pork tapeworm, the following preventive measures must be adhered to:
- purchase pork only in specialized food establishments;
- in case of doubt, demand documents indicating the results of the veterinary and sanitary examination;
- carefully examine the purchased meat for the presence of suspicious inclusions (cysticercus) in it;
- eat only a thermally processed product - the temperature inside the piece should exceed 80 ° within an hour;
- Long-term freezing can also kill Finns tapeworms in raw meat and render the meat harmless - ten days is enough to destroy cysticercus;
- do not taste raw meat product;
- observe personal hygiene - wash hands after using the toilet;
- at the slightest suspicion of a disease, immediately consult a specialist.
Observing simple measures for the prevention of teniasis, you can protect yourself and your family from a parasitic disease.