Worms From Person To Person: Methods Of Transmission

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Worms From Person To Person: Methods Of Transmission
Worms From Person To Person: Methods Of Transmission

Video: Worms From Person To Person: Methods Of Transmission

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Video: Deadly Worms!!! – A look at Soil Transmitted Helminths 2023, February
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There are about 200 varieties of helminths (worms) that infect the human body. For some of the parasites, humans are an intermediate host, and the active stage of development, when eggs are laid, occurs in the natural environment or in animals. But even in this case, infection with worms often causes serious complications.

Content

  1. The main routes of infection
  2. Oral infection
  3. Worms that are passed from person to person
  4. Ascaris
  5. Pinworms
  6. Prevention measures
  7. Output

The main routes of infection

Infection with worms occurs in several ways:

  1. Through the mouth. Parasites enter the stomach and then into the intestines through contaminated water, food, hands. Less commonly, eggs and larvae enter the mouth by self-infection (for example, pinworms).

    Pinworm infestation
    Pinworm infestation
  2. Transdermal (percutaneous) route. This method of transmission of helminths is characteristic of some types of worms. The latter, getting on the skin or mucous membrane, are introduced into the body and migrate into the intestines, where the larvae actively develop.
  3. Transmission path. Infection occurs when an insect bites. This route of infection is typical for the tropical region of the planet.
  4. Transplacental pathway. This method of infection is rare. The parasites in the mother's body enter the fetus through the blood. Ascaris is mainly transmitted by the transplacental route.

Primary infection does not always cause symptoms of helminthic infestation (helminth infection). The peculiarity of the development of some parasites is that at the larval stage, pathogenic microorganisms re-enter the oral cavity, after which they enter the stomach. But regardless of the nature of the spread of helminths, human worms are infectious.

Oral infection

Oral infection occurs:

  1. Contact-household way. Worms are highly resistant to environmental influences. Larvae and eggs remain viable for several months or years on dishes, items of clothing, or in an open environment.
  2. Through saliva. Worms are rarely transmitted by kissing. Infection occurs if the larvae or eggs are in the mouth or respiratory organs.
  3. Alimentary way. Infection occurs if a person consumes dirty vegetables and fruits.
  4. Consumption of contaminated meat and fish. For the development of many helminths, it is necessary that the larvae or eggs enter the body of an intermediate host (mainly animals). Therefore, with insufficient heat treatment, worms penetrate into the intestines of a person consuming contaminated meat.
  5. Through the water. It is especially dangerous to consume liquids obtained from wells, which are located near toilets and sewers.

Frequent infection with pinworms or other helminths is common in children. The child less often pays attention to the state of food or hands and often pulls dirty fingers, vegetables, fruits into his mouth.

Worms that are passed from person to person

The life cycle of worms goes through several periods: eggs, larvae, adults (mature) individuals. Depending on the type of worm, each stage of development takes place in a specific environment. Some helminths need their eggs to remain in the ground for several months. Other parasites only develop in the human body.

Roundworms and pinworms are among the most common parasites that become infected through contact with an infected person.

Ascaris

Roundworms are a common type of helminths that infect the human body. Parasites in the form of larvae enter not only the intestines, but also spread through the bloodstream to other sections, affecting the lungs, brain, and liver. Ascariasis that occurs after infection with these parasites provokes dry cough, blanching of the skin, dyspeptic disorders (nausea, diarrhea).

Ways of infection with ascaris
Ways of infection with ascaris

Ascaris infection occurs through the consumption of contaminated food or water. Helminths of this type, in the absence of adequate treatment, provoke dysfunction of the affected organs and cause serious complications, including death. The last option for the development of ascariasis is possible with damage to the brain or liver.

Pinworms

Pinworms enter the body through the mucous membranes of the nasopharynx (through dust, food, water, clothing). Helminths of this type are distinguished by their rapid development.

The growth of the pinworm colony is accompanied by the appearance of anemia and a sharp decrease in weight. This is due to the fact that parasites receive nutrients through the blood and food products that enter the body.

The disease that occurs against the background of infection with pinworms is known as enterobiasis.

Prevention measures

Prevention of helminthic invasion is reduced to the implementation of several rules:

  • consume only clean foods;
  • wash your hands daily;
  • avoid the consumption of uncooked or uncooked meat and fish;
  • limit contact with people who carry helminths;
  • wash dishes under hot water;
  • wash bedding daily at a high temperature if worms are detected in those living in the house.

Also, in order to prevent helminthic invasion, it is necessary to maintain immunity, since a strong organism is able to independently suppress the development of helminths.

Output

Parasites are transmitted through contaminated food, hands, and water. Infection with worms is possible through the consumption of contaminated meat or fish. In rare cases, worms enter the body through the saliva from the carrier of helminths, with insect bites. Hygiene rules must be followed daily to prevent infection.

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