Toxoplasmosis During Pregnancy: Symptoms And Consequences

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Toxoplasmosis During Pregnancy: Symptoms And Consequences
Toxoplasmosis During Pregnancy: Symptoms And Consequences

Video: Toxoplasmosis During Pregnancy: Symptoms And Consequences

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Video: Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy 2023, February
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Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is a common disease that can happen not only when dealing with pets, but also when eating raw meat, vegetables, fruits, etc.

Then they enter the lymph, blood, and are carried throughout the body, forming inflammatory granulomas.

But, if this happened in the first trimester of pregnancy, Toxoplasma is able to penetrate the placenta into the amniotic fluid. This poses a serious danger to both the expectant mother and the child.

If the infection occurred in the third trimester of pregnancy, then from the first days of life, the baby will develop acute toxoplasmosis. The characteristic features of its course will be fever, yellowness of the skin, subcutaneous hemorrhage. In the absence of immediate treatment, the newborn may die.

Content

  1. Symptoms of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy
  2. Consequences of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy
  3. Analysis for toxoplasmosis
  4. Decoding analysis
  5. Treatment
  6. Output

Symptoms of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy

Its existence can be found out only by the results of analyzes. In some cases, 2-3 weeks after infection, minor signs of toxoplasmosis may be observed, which a woman may not pay attention to:

  • temperature increase;
  • headache;
  • apathy;
  • enlarged lymph nodes;
  • insomnia.

With an aggressive course of the disease, a pregnant woman experiences severe muscle and joint pain, rash and fever. This condition needs to be treated urgently, because it can negatively affect the condition of the fetus.

During an ultrasound scan with toxoplasmosis, the following changes can be noticed:

  1. Enlargement of the spleen and liver of the fetus.
  2. Large amount of fluid in the abdomen.
  3. Salt deposits.
  4. Severe developmental delay.

Consequences of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy

A carrier of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can transmit the disease to the fetus. Toxoplasmosis, transferred in the past, does not pose a great danger to the fetus and mother. However, its acute course at this time can lead to malformations. Toxoplasma active substances are introduced into the placenta and enter the fetal bloodstream.

The nervous system and the brain are damaged, which leads to serious defects in development and even death of the fetus.

For pregnant women, toxoplasmosis is dangerous because it can lead to early miscarriage. But, if this did not happen, and the disease develops in the second trimester, then there is a high probability of severe consequences for the child.

Consequences of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy in a child
Consequences of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy in a child

The most common consequences of toxoplasmosis for the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy are:

  • serious visual impairment;
  • dropsy of the brain - an excess amount of fluid in the ventricles of the brain;
  • decrease in the size of the skull, impaired mental development;
  • dementia;
  • paralysis;
  • meningoencephalitis - inflammation of the lining of the brain (possibly also the spinal cord);
  • hemorrhage;
  • inflammation of the blood vessels of the circulatory system, which can lead to the development of thrombosis or vasculitis;
  • hearing impairment;
  • hernia of the brain;
  • underdevelopment or complete absence of the brain;
  • epilepsy.

If a child's disease is diagnosed in a timely manner, it can be cured, however, some of the consequences are irreversible:

  • epileptic seizures;
  • disruption of the gastrointestinal tract, which leads to impaired absorption of nutrients, weight problems, etc.;
  • endocrine system pathology;
  • puberty may occur earlier or later;
  • encephalitis;
  • mental problems.

For a woman who has shown an acute stage of the disease, childbirth is difficult, and serious blood loss is possible. Most often, a planned cesarean section is performed.

Analysis for toxoplasmosis

To exclude the likelihood of developing the disease, or to establish an accurate diagnosis, in the presence of the above symptoms, it is necessary to pass a serological test for immunoglobulins.

This analysis is taken from a vein, on an empty stomach. Blood is collected not in a syringe, but in an open tube. The study is carried out by introducing special reagents into the biomaterial. Usually the result is prepared for about a week.

Decoding analysis

During routine examinations during pregnancy, an analysis for immunoglobulin G and M may be prescribed. This recommendation should not be ignored, because this is the only way to find out about the presence or absence of toxoplasmosis in the body.

First, you need to determine that:

  1. IgG - antibodies that a woman has after infection. Their presence in the analysis indicates that the disease has passed into a chronic stage and immunity has been developed for it. An increased rate indicates a latent course of the disease.
  2. IgM - indicates that the avidity of antibodies is low, that is, they were formed recently.
  3. IgM and IgG - the disease has developed in the last year, possibly a re-infection.

The rate of toxoplasmosis is when IgM and IgG are negative, which means that the pregnant woman does not, and has never had this disease, and immunity has not been developed for it. There is no danger here, but a woman should be careful not to catch an illness.

If IgM is positive and IgG is negative, then the woman is infected with toxoplasmosis, and it is in the acute stage. In such a case, early abortion may be recommended.

If this result is obtained when planning pregnancy, then it is better to postpone conception for more than six months.

During this period, the body develops antibodies to toxoplasmosis, which will prevent the disease from spreading to the child.

This indicator will help establish the approximate time when the infection occurred (before or during pregnancy).

Toxoplasma under a microscope
Toxoplasma under a microscope

If the result of IgM and IgG is positive during pregnancy, then the disease is in the acute stage, and the infection occurred no later than two months. After two months, you will need to donate blood for toxoplasmosis again, during this period the value of G should increase, and M should decrease. If this does not happen, an analysis of the amniotic fluid is necessary, which will indicate the presence or absence of parasites there.

If IgM is negative and IgG is positive, then the pregnant woman has chronic toxoplasmosis, which poses no danger to either the mother or the child, since immunity has been developed.

Treatment

If, according to the test results, it is established that the child is not infected, then Spiramycin is prescribed, the active substances of which protect him from illness.

If the fetus is infected with an infection, Pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, or Doxycycline and Spiramycin are prescribed. Treatment is carried out in courses of 10 days. Folinic acid is also prescribed (this is not folic acid). The following drugs can also be prescribed: Biseptol, Rovamycin and Sulfadoxone.

You should never self-medicate, especially since many medications are prohibited during pregnancy.

To prevent infection, it is necessary to perform some preventive measures:

  1. Do not eat raw or semi-raw meat.
  2. Handle fruits and vegetables carefully.
  3. If a pet lives in the house, it is necessary to change its toilet every day. You need to carry out this procedure in rubber gloves, and after that, be sure to wash your hands with soap and water.
  4. All work in the garden or vegetable garden should be carried out with rubber gloves.
Ways of infection with toxoplasmosis
Ways of infection with toxoplasmosis

In order for the pregnancy to proceed easily, and toxoplasmosis does not manifest itself, it is necessary to perform all the above measures that will protect the baby better than any medicine. We should not forget about strengthening the immunity of a pregnant woman, because it protects not only the woman, but also the fetus.

Output

Pregnancy planning must be done in advance, pass all the necessary tests and be cured of existing diseases. Unfortunately, no one will definitely give a guarantee that a pregnant woman will not get sick with toxoplasmosis, therefore, health must be treated responsibly, especially during the period of bearing a child. It should be borne in mind that most often toxoplasmosis is transmitted through contact with pets, by eating raw or semi-raw meat, as well as unprocessed vegetables and fruits.

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