Table of contents:
- Life cycle of parasites
- Treatment of pinworms in children
- Help for enterobiasis
Video: Pinworms In Children, Treatment And Symptoms Of Worms
Enterobiasis is a disease manifested by helminthic lesions of the intestines. The causative agent of the disease is pinworms. These are white worms. The sizes of females are from 8-14 mm, males - 2-4 mm. Pinworms in a child are transmitted by the fecal-oral and contact-household routes. The vital activity of parasites is supported by the presence of lactic acid bacteria in the intestines.
- Life cycle of parasites
- Symptoms in children 1 to 3 years of age
- Complicated course of enterobiasis
- Enterobiasis smear
- Scraping on pinworm eggs
- Analysis of feces for enterobiasis
- Other types of research
- Treatment of pinworms in children
- Treatment with folk remedies
- Help for enterobiasis
Life cycle of parasites
One host (human) is enough for a helminth to complete its life cycle. Eggs enter the child's body upon contact with contaminated public items, children with enterobiasis. In the absence of proper hygiene during eating or other activities, eggs enter the mouth, stomach, and then into the intestines. Egg shells are not destroyed in the stomach, as they have a very dense shell.
In the large intestine, larvae develop from eggs, and after 15 days, new sexually mature individuals, which support the further reproduction of parasites. To lay eggs, females crawl out of the anus at night or in the evening. Moisture in the perineum contributes to the normal development of the offspring. The movement of females causes itching, which causes the baby to scratch the perineum. The eggs fall under the child's nails and then back into the mouth. This is how repeated self - infection is carried out. The eggs are microscopic in size, last up to 2-3 weeks in the external environment, and are easily spread to objects that the patient touches. In the absence of proper hygiene, healthy children and adults are infected.
Sources of infection can be:
- bedding, underwear and other hygiene products;
Clinical manifestations of enterobiasis are typical. The most important symptom of the disease is itching in the anal area. With constant scratching of the perineum, the child will develop traces of scratching around the anus. Because of the excruciating itching, the child does not fall asleep well, sleep becomes interrupted, the baby turns around in bed. Due to a violation of the rest regimen, bruises appear under the eyes, pallor of the face. Many parents notice teeth grinding.
The appetite is either increased or poor. The child is salivating profusely. Patients complain of symptoms of intestinal dyspepsia: nausea, sometimes vomiting, constipation, loose or unstable stools, blood-streaked feces. Children complain of pain in the navel. As it multiplies, intoxication symptoms increase, which are accompanied by headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness during the day, and fever may appear. Schoolchildren have declining academic performance, mood changes, irritability.
Children often suffer from acute respiratory infections, as their immunity decreases. Intestinal dysbiosis is observed (lactic acid bacteria becomes less). In babies under 4 years old, especially in girls, nocturnal enuresis occurs. It is caused by the penetration of pinworms into the urethra and bladder. Girls suffer from vulvovaginitis due to the anatomical structure of the reproductive system.
Symptoms in children 1 to 3 years of age
Children under one year old cannot be put to bed. They are very moody, refuse to breast.
This is due to a strong lack of vitamins and minerals in the baby's body. Such children gain or lose weight poorly. On examination, you can also find worms in the anal area. A frequent manifestation of enterobiasis in children under three years of age is an allergic reaction to the skin. It occurs when parasite toxins enter the bloodstream. The rash can be on the face, arms, legs, abdomen, and also all over the body. The elements of the rash do not rise above the surface of the skin, the rash is pink, itching, accompanied by edema.
Complicated course of enterobiasis
Pinworms in children are dangerous due to the appearance of diseases from the genitourinary system, intestines, abdominal cavity, a severe course of allergies that occur in the absence of treatment.
- inflammation of the ovaries and fallopian tubes, frequent exacerbations of vulvovaginitis;
- defeat of the testicles, foreskin;
- leukorrhea (mucous or purulent vaginal discharge);
- eosinophilic enterocolitis (an inflammatory reaction to exposure to toxic substances during the life of pathogens);
- appendicitis (an acute inflammatory disease when parasites enter the cecum);
- peritonitis (an inflammatory process in the abdominal cavity when the intestinal walls are damaged by helminths);
- Quincke's edema (severe outcome of an allergic reaction to the toxins of pathogens, requiring urgent medical attention);
- seizures of epilepsy with weakness of the nervous system;
- damage to internal organs (pinworms can parasitize in the liver, spleen, kidneys), renal and hepatic failure;
- anemia (with low hemoglobin and vitamin B12).
Many complications are eliminated with the appointment of anthelmintic therapy, but some require additional surgical or conservative treatment.
Scraping and smear for enterobiasis, general blood count, enzyme immunoassay are used as diagnostic measures.
An indispensable and simple method for diagnosing pinworms is a smear for enterobiasis. The analysis is carried out for all children attending preschool and school institutions. A swab is taken from the skin around the anus with a cotton swab dipped in saline or glycerin. The stick must be placed in a hermetically sealed tube and taken to the laboratory.
Scraping on pinworm eggs
Scraping is done with a special wooden spatula, which is also placed in an airtight glass test tube. Recently, scraping has been carried out using adhesive tape. It is applied with the adhesive side to the crotch area, and then applied to a glass slide.
The analysis is sent to the laboratory for examination under a microscope. Scraping for enterobiasis in children at home (scotch test) is carried out using the same adhesive tape and glass that can be purchased at pharmacies. The analysis is carried out immediately after waking up, before washing the baby. For the reliability of the result, scraping is taken from 3-5 times in order to catch the moment when the female laid eggs. With a five-time study for enterobiasis, the result is 99% reliable. When examining the slide under a microscope, eggs are visible, which have a characteristic shape. On the one hand, they are straight, and on the other hand, they have a convex shape. This is a distinctive diagnostic feature of the causative agent of enterobiasis.
Analysis of feces for enterobiasis
The analysis of feces is not informative, since pinworm eggs are not detected during it. Pinworms in the feces of a child are visualized if biological material was collected from the skin around the anus.
Other types of research
When decoding the results of a general blood test of a patient with enterobiasis, eosinophilia and leukocytosis are detected. These rates are higher at the onset of the disease. As the multiplication of worms progresses, the number of leukocytes and eosinophils decreases. To diagnose enterobiasis, an enzyme immunoassay is used. Material for research is taken from a vein. The purpose of the method is to determine the antibodies of the pathogen in the blood.
Treatment of pinworms in children
Therapeutic measures include the mandatory use of anthelmintics. There are several drugs that are actively used to treat enterobiasis.
- Helmavitol (candles);
Pirantel and Piperazine are available in tablet form. Nemozole is in the form of a suspension, Sanoxal is produced in the form of chewable tablets. Medicines for pinworms are also produced in candles. An example of such a drug is Helmavitol.
Vermox for pinworms is prescribed according to the instructions for use. For children, it is allowed from the age of three, 100 mg per day for 3 days. If necessary, you can repeat the course of treatment after 3 weeks. This medication is contraindicated in autoimmune ulcerative lesions of the intestine, liver failure. In addition to these drugs, enterosorbents are used to reduce the symptoms of intoxication. For constipation, microclysters with boiled water are prescribed. To do this, use a rubber syringe.
Treatment with folk remedies
To get rid of pinworms at home, traditional medicine suggests using the juice of onions, garlic, beets. Garlic juice can be used to make an enema solution. To do this, cut 7-10 g of garlic, pour 300 ml of boiled water, insist 1-2 hours. Enema is put on at night during the week.
Preventive measures to prevent the occurrence of enterobiasis include hygiene. Do not use other people's towels, underwear, wash your hands before eating. Parents should carefully monitor the child's behavior, teach him to wash his hands more often, not to take dirty objects in his mouth, and not to bite his nails.
Scraping should be taken annually for the presence of pinworm eggs, as well as when the child enters a kindergarten, school, section. If symptoms of the disease are detected, it is urgent to treat it.
If an infection occurs, try to prevent the re-entry of pathogens into the body.
For these purposes you need:
- wash clothes at a temperature of 55 degrees, iron them after washing;
- cut your baby's nails short;
- change underwear after sleep;
- wash toys with soap;
- carry out wet cleaning daily;
- vacuuming carpets and other textile items;
- wear underpants with tight elastic bands around the legs and waist;
- to wash hands;
- insert a cotton swab with petroleum jelly into the anus during sleep.
Help for enterobiasis
Scraping for enterobiasis is included in the list of tests for a child's visit to the pool, kindergartens, schools, sanatoriums, camps and other institutions. The analysis is valid for 10 days. You can get a certificate of the absence of the disease from your local pediatrician (for children) and from a general practitioner or general practitioner (for adults). After taking the scraping, it must be delivered to the laboratory no later than 2 hours, otherwise the analysis will have to be taken again.
Enterobiasis is the most common disease among children with helminthiasis, as it is very contagious (easily transmitted). It can be avoided by observing preventive measures, as well as excluding contact with infectious patients. Treatment of the disease is not difficult if you follow the instructions for anthelmintic drugs.