Enterobiasis - Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention, Tests For Enterbiosis

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Enterobiasis - Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention, Tests For Enterbiosis
Enterobiasis - Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention, Tests For Enterbiosis

Video: Enterobiasis - Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention, Tests For Enterbiosis

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Content

  1. Infection process
  2. Symptoms of enterobiasis
  3. Complications of enterobiasis
  4. Tests for enterobiasis
  5. Scraping for enterobiasis
  6. Graham method (adhesive tape)
  7. Stool analysis
  8. Blood test
  9. Enterobiasis treatment
  10. Prevention of enterobiasis
  11. Help for enterobiasis
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The reproduction of parasites in the human body is not uncommon. Pinworms are one of the most common and contagious types of such worms. Their entry into the intestines causes enterobiasis disease. It can occur in adults, but it is most commonly diagnosed in kindergarten and primary school toddlers.

Infection process

Every person suffering from enterobiasis is dangerous to others. After all, he is a potential carrier of parasites. This happens when pinworms breed. At this moment, their life cycle takes place not only inside the intestines, but also outside:

  1. Sexually mature individuals mate.
  2. Fertilized females attach to the intestinal walls and begin to parasitize.
  3. After the eggs mature, the worm crawls out of the anus. This occurs in the evening and at night, when the human sphincter is relaxed.
  4. At a time, the parasite lays from five to seventeen thousand larvae on the skin of the genitals.
  5. After a few hours, they become ripe.

Pinworm eggs end up on bedding and underwear, skin. A person, accidentally touching the larvae, transfers them with unwashed hands to other objects.

Pinworm life cycle
Pinworm life cycle

Once in the arms of healthy children, the larvae stick to their skin. After that, the baby only has to stick a finger in his mouth, or swallow any food, and future parasites enter the body.

Enterobiasis in children often takes on very intense forms. This happens due to repeated self-infection many times. The child scratches the itchy skin, the eggs of the worms fall under the fingernails and mature there after a few hours. After that, with unwashed hands, the child eats or climbs into his mouth.

Symptoms of enterobiasis

Signs of pinworm infection directly depend on the stage and intensity of the disease. The individual characteristics of a person play an important role.

After the initial ingress of the worm's eggs into the body, the clinical incubation period begins. It lasts about two days, after which the acute phase of enterobiasis begins. It lasts about a week. At this time, you can observe:

  • discomfort and pain in the intestines;
  • nausea;
  • an increase in the frequency of bowel movements up to four times a day (while the stool remains normally formed).
Nausea, abdominal pain
Nausea, abdominal pain

After that, unpleasant sensations (except for the increased frequency of going to the toilet) disappear. This is due to the peculiarities of reproduction and vital activity of female pinworms. After a few weeks, the disease becomes chronic. The symptoms of enterobiasis in children and adults vary.

Some of the infected people may show no signs of parasite development. Others have:

  • itching in the anal area that occurs in the evenings and at night;
  • pain in the abdomen.

Similar symptoms of enterobiasis last for several days, and then disappear. After three to four weeks, they reappear.

Parasites can enter the body many times. This happens by self-infection. Repeated invasions lead to the fact that the worms multiply very strongly, and the number of mature individuals increases. With such intense and prolonged infections, the symptoms of enterobiasis intensify:

  • itching in the anus begins to bother not only at night, but also during the day;
  • discomfort in the abdomen becomes more intense;
  • the stool becomes liquid;
  • flatulence appears;
  • headache often occurs;
  • severe fatigue appears;
  • in adults, memory, working capacity decreases;
  • the child's academic performance falls, attention becomes unstable, new information is very slowly perceived, fainting and epileptic seizures can be observed.

Complications of enterobiasis

In severe forms of pinworm infection, not only symptoms characteristic of the disease are observed. The disease can provoke complications, serious secondary diseases.

The pathologies caused by enterobiasis include:

  • allergic reactions;
  • dysbacteriosis;
  • vulvitis;
  • vaginitis;
  • endometritis;
  • appendicitis;
  • dermatitis;
  • inflammation and eczema in the genital area;
  • paraproctitis;
  • rectal fistulas.
Fistula
Fistula

The female parasite can penetrate deep into the intestinal mucosa for almost the entire length of her body. In this case, a granuloma forms around the affected area. This kind of "cyst" limits the inflamed area from healthy tissue and gradually grows.

For pregnant women, such an anomaly is fraught with the strongest manifestations of toxicosis.

Tests for enterobiasis

The symptoms of pinworm infection only help to suspect the presence of the disease. For a doctor, familiarity with the patient's clinical picture is not enough.

You can take tests for enterobiasis in several ways. Any of them helps to identify the presence of parasites accurately enough.

Scraping for enterobiasis

Scraping for enterobiasis
Scraping for enterobiasis

A pinworm smear will be reliable if the genitals are not washed before testing. Examination for enterobiasis by scraping is done as follows:

  • the patient takes off his underwear and lies on his side;
  • the doctor spreads his buttocks;
  • the perianal folds are wiped with a tampon moistened with glycerin.

The taken material is sent to the laboratory, where the necessary research is carried out.

Graham method (adhesive tape)

There is another way to identify pinworms in children and adults. Before carrying out it, you should also not wash the genitals. Its essence is as follows:

  • the doctor spreads the patient's buttocks;
  • at the same time, the specialist applies a piece of adhesive tape to the perianal folds and anus for a few seconds.

After the completion of the procedure, the material is glued to a glass slide and sent for research.

Stool analysis

It is possible to determine not only the presence of pinworms, but also to identify another type of worms by examining the feces themselves. For this, feces are collected in a clean container from several areas. There should be no urine impurities.

Such an analysis for oviduct and enterobiasis will be reliable if no more than five hours have passed since the moment of defecation.

Blood test

Laboratory hematological studies with enterobiasis are not basic for diagnosing the disease.

Blood test for enterobiasis
Blood test for enterobiasis

Blood tests can only help determine the phase of development of pinworms. Against the background of moderate leukocytosis in an infected person, there is a change in the number of eosinophils, which:

  • increase in the early phase;
  • reach the maximum value (23%) on the sixteenth day;
  • decrease to 4 - 5% by the end of the next infection cycle.

A blood test is performed quite rarely, since the indicators vary greatly at different periods of invasion.

Enterobiasis treatment

Tablets for worms
Tablets for worms

With laboratory confirmation of the presence of pinworms, the doctor prescribes the necessary drug therapy. The most commonly used anthelmintic drugs are:

  • Piperazine;
  • Vermox;
  • Mebendazole;
  • Pirantel.

Treatment of enterobiasis in children involves a parallel examination of the entire team (class at school, group in kindergarten). If the tests confirm the presence of parasites in more than fifteen percent of the surveyed contingent, then drug therapy is carried out for all children in a row. If fewer babies are infected, then only those who have been confirmed to have pinworms are treated.

Ten days after taking anthelmintic drugs, patients are tested. If the result is negative, then a control laboratory examination is prescribed. It is carried out ten days after the first. In case of a positive result, treatment continues.

Prevention of enterobiasis

Getting rid of pinworms consists not only in drug therapy, but also in the application of certain sanitary and hygienic measures.

Treatment of enterobiasis in adults and children must be accompanied by:

  • washing hands with soap (before meals, after the street and touching dirty objects)
  • compliance with the rules of intimate hygiene;
  • getting rid of the habit of biting your nails;
  • wearing underpants rubberized on the legs;
  • conducting soda enemas of the intestine;
  • daily change of underwear;
  • performing constant wet cleaning of the home.

Preventive measures must be observed not only for the entire period of getting rid of the disease, but also for several more weeks after that.

Help for enterobiasis

Tests for pinworms are carried out not only to confirm the diagnosis and during follow-up examinations. They are appointed if a person needs a certificate of the absence of enterobiasis. To do this, you should contact your local doctor. The therapist will write a referral for enterobiasis in adults, the pediatrician - in children.

The test result is ready the next day after lunch.

Help for enterobiasis does not last long. For children, this period is three months, for adults - six months.

Help for enterobiasis
Help for enterobiasis

If pinworm eggs are found, then the document is not issued. The patient and his entire family are prescribed treatment. With strict adherence to the doctor's recommendations, you can get rid of parasites quickly enough. Taking medications and simple preventive measures will help you forget about enterobiasis forever.

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