Ascariasis In Children And Adults, Symptoms And Treatment Of Ascaris

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Ascariasis In Children And Adults, Symptoms And Treatment Of Ascaris
Ascariasis In Children And Adults, Symptoms And Treatment Of Ascaris

Video: Ascariasis In Children And Adults, Symptoms And Treatment Of Ascaris

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Video: What is Ascariasis ? ( Ascaris Lumbricoids Infections - FAQ ) 2023, February
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Infection of the body with parasites, unfortunately, is far from uncommon. The ubiquitous helminthic diseases include ascariasis, a common type of helminthiasis caused by human ascaris. The localization of individuals is mainly based in the small intestine, but when moving, parasites penetrate into other organs, which injures the tissues of the latter. For this reason, the disease often leads to serious complications and disruptions in the body.

Ascariasis
Ascariasis

Content

  1. Symptoms of ascariasis
  2. Early symptoms of ascariasis
  3. Symptoms of ascariasis in a late stage
  4. How do you get infected with ascariasis
  5. Tests for ascariasis
  6. Coproovoscopy
  7. Immunoassay for ascariasis
  8. Scatological examination
  9. Other types of research
  10. Treatment of ascariasis
  11. Prevention

Symptoms of ascariasis

The manifestation of symptoms of ascariasis in adults and children largely depends on the stage of the disease. The following phases are distinguished:

  1. Early or migratory stage. The duration of the phase is 2-3 weeks. The main symptom is the occurrence of allergic reactions and a general increase in the body's sensitivity to various objects, caused by the waste products of ascaris.
  2. Late or intestinal stage. The duration of the phase is 1 year or more. There is a decrease in allergic reactions and damage to the walls of the small intestine by individuals of worms. Due to long-term parasitism of ascaris, a deficiency of vitamins occurs, and immunity is significantly reduced.

As for the specific signs of ascariasis, most often the symptoms appear in the respiratory system and in the gastrointestinal tract. The brightness and time of manifestations depends on the stage of the disease and the number of parasites that have entered the body.

Early symptoms of ascariasis

The first noticeable signs are most often observed after 1-2 months from the moment the eggs enter the human body.

Symptoms of ascariasis at the stage of migration:

  1. Infectious toxic syndrome. It appears in the first weeks after infection. It is expressed as an increase in temperature indicators up to 39 ° -40 ° for 1-7 days. In this case, there is general malaise, sweating, loss of performance, weakness, lethargy.
  2. Allergic rash in the form of blistering formations on the surface of the body or on the feet and hands. May be accompanied by itching. This symptom is considered a characteristic manifestation of ascariasis in children.

    Allergy to worms
    Allergy to worms
  3. Increased liver volume in some cases. Discomfort under the ribs on the right side. Stomach ache.
  4. Broncho-pulmonary syndrome or, in other words, Loeffler's syndrome. The most commonly observed symptom at this stage. It manifests itself as a strong dry or wet cough. In the latter case, expectoration of sputum streaked with blood is likely. Also, chest pains, shortness of breath are characteristic. When listening to the lungs, wet or dry wheezing is heard. The child may develop pneumonia at this point.

Also, the migratory stage is characterized by a rapid heartbeat with a frequency of more than 80 beats per minute and surges in blood pressure, more often with a decrease in indicators to the level of 90/60.

Symptoms of ascariasis in a late stage

For the intestinal stage, when the larva turns into an adult roundworm, the following symptoms are characteristic:

  • decreased appetite, against the background of which there is a sharp weight loss;
  • nausea in the morning, vomiting;
  • cramping abdominal pain localized in the navel;

    Abdominal pain
    Abdominal pain
  • upset stool, expressed in the alternation of constipation and diarrhea;
  • bloating;
  • itching and redness in the anus;
  • against the background of a decrease in immunity, various inflammations and suppurations on the skin often occur;
  • susceptibility to infectious diseases;
  • sleep disturbance in the form of frequent nightmares;
  • decreased performance, fatigue;
  • severe headaches, dizziness;
  • children may experience delayed psychomotor development, moodiness, irritability, distraction, convulsions.

How do you get infected with ascariasis

Ascariasis is a disease provoked by the ingestion of the pathogen - human roundworm. Outwardly, the adult resembles an elongated worm of a yellow-red hue, which turns white after death. The length of the female is 20-40 cm, of the male 15-25 cm.

Ways of infection with ascaris
Ways of infection with ascaris

Infection with ascariasis occurs when the larva enters the body through ingestion. Most often, this happens due to the use of poorly washed vegetables, berries, fruits, herbs, as well as non-observance of hygiene rules, in particular, rare hand washing.

After swallowing eggs and their penetration into the intestines, the larvae exit and their further movement to the liver, heart, lungs through the bloodstream. At the final stage, the parasites penetrate the alveoli of the lungs, from where they climb the tracheobronchial tree into the pharynx, where the swallowing process takes place again.

After re-entering the small intestine, the larva matures and turns into an adult.

The susceptibility of the population to ascariasis is very high.

Ascariasis in children. Dirty hands
Ascariasis in children. Dirty hands

This can be explained very simply - babies do not always observe hygiene and wash their hands after playing in the sand and on the street, and often without leaving the place of play they take something into their mouth, thereby increasing the risk of ascaris eggs entering the body.

Tests for ascariasis

Diagnosis of ascariasis consists in a thorough examination of the patient and making a diagnosis based on a series of tests.

Coproovoscopy

coproovoscopy
coproovoscopy

The method is considered the easiest in determining the nature of the parasite. It consists in collecting material from the folds of the anus using a special tape or a smear with a sterile cotton swab. Most often, the analysis is carried out several times with an interval of 5-10 days.

Immunoassay for ascariasis

Linked immunosorbent assay
Linked immunosorbent assay

The enzyme immunoassay is to determine the response of the human immune system to the presence of foreign elements in the body, in this case, ascaris. At the slightest activity of the parasite, leukocytes in the blood begin to produce antibodies to developing worms, to eliminate the toxic effects of the latter. In the case of the presence of larvae or adults, the analysis gives a positive result for IgG antibodies in ascariasis.

The method is the collection of capillary blood from children and venous blood from adults. The procedure is performed on an empty stomach in the morning. It is recommended to take the analysis at least three times, for a more accurate result.

Scatological examination

Stool analysis
Stool analysis

The method is optimal for the late stage of ascariasis, when there are parasite eggs in the feces.

Given the inaccuracy of the technique, stool analysis is performed several times.

Other types of research

To detect ascariasis at an early stage, the following methods are additionally used:

  1. Radiography. During migration, the roundworm larvae move through the body, getting into the lungs. Here, parasites are attached to the tissues, disrupting their structure, which further causes inflammation. Radiography is aimed at identifying such lesions.
  2. Sputum analysis. Effective in the initial stages of ascariasis when coughing with sputum discharge. It is aimed at detecting larvae in sputum, but since the result may not be accurate, additional analyzes are required.
  3. Analysis of urine. Aimed at detecting in the urine of fats secreted by the larvae of the parasite. It is carried out at the initial stages, but it does not always have accurate indicators.

Treatment of ascariasis

Treatment of ascariasis is carried out at home according to the doctor's prescription. Hospitalization is required in especially severe cases - with the development of complications and the need for surgical intervention.

Pills
Pills

In general, the treatment of ascariasis in children and adults is based on drug therapy with the following drugs:

  1. Anthelmintic drugs aimed at destroying parasites - Pirantel, Dekaris, Vermox, Piperazine.
  2. Antihistamines are prescribed to avoid an allergic reaction to the decay products of ascaris bodies. Prescribed - Suprastin, Zirtek, Zodak, Tavegil.
  3. Enzymatic agents that improve intestinal function - Mezim, Creon, Micrasim.
  4. Probiotics are necessary for the restoration of intestinal microflora and the prevention of dysbiosis. Common means are Linex, Bifiform.

Additionally, experts recommend sticking to a diet and eating at least 4-5 times a day. At the end of the treatment, vitamin complexes are prescribed.

In the case of ascariasis treatment in children, less aggressive anthelmintic drugs are used, since standard drugs often provoke an adverse reaction and reduce the child's quality of life.

Prevention

Prevention of ascariasis, aimed at reducing the risk of infection with ascaris eggs, involves the following measures:

  1. Scrupulous adherence to hygiene rules - washing hands after contact with the ground, dirty vegetables and fruits. Any manipulation with the soil should be carried out with gloves.
  2. Careful processing of vegetables, herbs, eggs.
  3. Avoiding the use of raw water whenever possible.

In a more global sense, prevention requires maintaining cleanliness in areas and yards, in particular, cleansing playgrounds from faeces, followed by treatment of the earth's surface.

Ascariasis is recognized as one of the most common types of helminthiasis. In order to avoid infection with parasite eggs, preventive measures should be carefully observed, and at the first symptoms of the disease, do not postpone a visit to the doctor.

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