Gardnerella In Women: Where Does It Come From, What Are The Symptoms And How To Treat

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Gardnerella In Women: Where Does It Come From, What Are The Symptoms And How To Treat
Gardnerella In Women: Where Does It Come From, What Are The Symptoms And How To Treat
Video: Gardnerella In Women: Where Does It Come From, What Are The Symptoms And How To Treat
Video: What is Gardnerella? | Is Gardnerella an STI? 2023, February
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Photo of gardnerella under a microscope
Photo of gardnerella under a microscope

Gardnerella vaginalis is the causative agent of vaginal dysbiosis, which is dangerous for its severe complications. Pathology is manifested by profuse vaginal discharge, pulling pains in the lower abdomen, dry mucous membranes. Treatment of gardnerellosis is conservative with the use of local antiseptics, antibiotics and antimicrobial agents.

Content

  1. What is Gardnerella
  2. Causes of gardnerella
  3. Typical symptoms
  4. Treatment
  5. Medicines
  6. Folk remedies
  7. Prevention measures

What is Gardnerella

Gardnerella is a facultative anaerobic bacterium that resides in the vagina. Its population is small compared to the number of other representatives of the vaginal microbiocenosis. It contains many lactobacilli, which provide an acidic environment, as well as bifidobacteria and peptostreptococci. If there are enough beneficial microorganisms in the vagina, then you can not be afraid of the activation of pathogens, which include gardnerella.

As soon as a person's immunity weakens, these bacteria begin to grow and multiply. They take the place of dead lactobacilli, move up towards the uterus and appendages. The more gardnerella becomes, the more rapidly the number of representatives of pathogenic microflora grows. Vaginal dysbiosis develops, which often precedes candidiasis. Moreover, gardnerella can live in the male body.

Causes of gardnerella

Gardnerella is sexually transmitted, and the risk of contracting it increases significantly with frequent partner changes. But this does not mean that vaginal dysbiosis will certainly occur.

Gardnerella are representatives of a conditionally pathogenic microflora that can not manifest themselves for a long time. The infection manifests itself with a sharp decrease in immunity, provoked by such negative factors:

  • unfavorable ecology;
  • irrational, unbalanced diet, depleted in lactic acid products;
  • insufficient intake of micro- and macroelements, fat- and water-soluble vitamins;
  • infection with pathogens of sexually transmitted diseases;
  • long-term course use of cytostatics, glucocorticosteroids, antibacterial agents, including local ones;
  • use of oral contraceptives;
  • wearing synthetic underwear that is poorly breathable and absorbs moisture;
  • hormonal disorders, for example, pregnancy, menopause, endocrine pathologies;
  • any immunodeficiency state;
  • depression, neurosis, acute experience of a stressful situation.

Intestinal dysbiosis will sooner or later cause the death of beneficial bacteria in the vagina. This will lead to diseases of the urogenital tract - vaginal candidiasis, vaginitis, vulvovaginitis and others.

Typical symptoms

The incubation period for gardnerella lasts about 5 days. The first signs of vaginal lesions with gardnerella can occur after a week, especially if a woman is taking antibiotics. In debilitated patients, gardnerellosis manifests itself one day after the weakening of the immune defense. For several days, the woman feels only discomfort due to dryness of the mucous membrane. But soon its intensity increases. In most cases, the infection manifests itself with the following symptoms:

  • grayish vaginal discharge with a slight unpleasant odor;
  • a feeling of heaviness in the lower abdomen, especially after urinating;
  • slight redness of the mucous membranes and (or) skin in the places of activation of infectious agents;
  • general malaise, weakness, fatigue, sleep disorders;
  • psycho-emotional instability due to misunderstanding of what is happening.

If untreated, bacterial vaginosis becomes chronic. During remission, there is a burning sensation, tingling, weak cramps when emptying the bladder.

The woman notices profuse vaginal discharge, and instead of a burning sensation, she feels moderate pain.

Treatment

Microflora disorders in gardnerellosis are diagnosed on the basis of a woman's complaints, a characteristic clinical picture. To establish the species of infectious pathogens, sowing of vaginal discharge (smear) into nutrient media is performed. By the number of colonies formed, the intensity of the inflammatory process is also judged. OCP and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are used only if bacterial culture is not informative.

Female genitourinary system
Female genitourinary system

A step-by-step, integrated approach is practiced for the treatment of gardnerellosis. At the initial stage, a woman is prescribed drugs to destroy opportunistic microorganisms. The therapeutic regimens include analgesics that eliminate pain and burning. And then funds are used to restore the vaginal microbiocenosis. Eubiotics are used - both probiotics and prebiotics. In the treatment of gardnerellosis, Lactobacterin, Hilak Forte, Linex, Acipol are useful. And to improve overall health, balanced complexes of vitamins and minerals are used: Centrum, Selmevit, Vitrum, Supradin.

Medicines

In the process of coexistence with humans, gardnerella have developed resistance to many antibiotics. They are resistant to the action of semi-synthetic penicillins, tetracyclines, quinolones. The pathogenic bacteria are most sensitive to clindamycin in the form of vaginal cream or capsules. The use of this antibiotic is quite enough to destroy gardnerella. In an acute infectious process, external agents with metronidazole are additionally prescribed in the form of vaginal suppositories, cream or tablets for oral administration:

  • Metrogyl;
  • Klion;
  • Trichopolus.

In place of the dead lactobacilli, opportunistic fungi often begin to multiply. Doctors prefer to immediately prevent candidiasis, including drugs with clotrimazole (vaginal tablets, suppositories, cream, gel) in treatment regimens. These are Candide, Imidil, Kandizol, Kandibene, Funginal, Kanizon.

Not all medications are indicated for the treatment of gardnerella in pregnant women.

Folk remedies

Home treatment with folk remedies is not only impractical, but also dangerous. None of them even has the ability to inhibit the growth of opportunistic microorganisms. Folk remedies can only slightly reduce the severity of symptoms. And this will distort the diagnostic picture, will become the reason for going to the doctor even with the developed complications.

Officials recommend using chamomile tea and sour rosehip infusion (a teaspoon per glass of boiling water). Drinking plenty of fluids will lead to increased urination. This means that a certain part of the bacteria will be excreted from the body with urine.

Prevention measures

It will not work to cure gardnerella forever - it is an integral part of the vaginal microflora. But it is quite possible not to let it become more active. Promiscuous sexual relations should be excluded. It is necessary to strengthen the immune system, treat all diseases in a timely manner, use hygiene products without fragrances. You also need to undergo medical examinations by a gynecologist at least 2 times a year.

A woman is considered recovered if, upon repeated laboratory examination, an increased number of gardnerella is not found in the smear. Subject to medical recommendations, the prognosis is favorable. The vaginal microflora is restored, and all the symptoms of pathology disappear.

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