Manifestations, Prognosis And Methods Of Treatment Of Cysticercosis

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Manifestations, Prognosis And Methods Of Treatment Of Cysticercosis
Manifestations, Prognosis And Methods Of Treatment Of Cysticercosis

Video: Manifestations, Prognosis And Methods Of Treatment Of Cysticercosis

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Parasitic diseases are widespread, due to neglect of hygiene standards, the use of poorly processed animal products, as well as unwashed fruits and vegetables. Such diseases develop when worms enter the body. Cysticercosis in humans is an infectious and parasitic disease caused by the larva of pork tapeworm. Helminthic invasion of this type is a particular health hazard, since, in addition to dysfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract, it causes damage to the central nervous system.

Content

  1. General description of the disease
  2. The reasons for the development of the disease
  3. Symptoms and forms of the disease
  4. Varieties of cysticercosis depending on the area of ​​the lesion
  5. Diagnostics
  6. Features of the treatment of cysticercosis in humans
  7. Prevention
pork tapeworm larva
pork tapeworm larva

General description of the disease

Cysticercosis, or finnosis, a complication of teniasis, is a type of helminthic invasion, in which cysticercus parasites (larvae of pork tapeworm) are introduced into the human body. According to statistics, this type of parasitic disease is most widespread in the countries of South and Central Africa, as well as South Asia.

In humans, the disease develops when the eggs of the parasite enter the gastrointestinal tract. In the stomach cavity, the development and release of larvae occurs, which are able to migrate along with the blood flow to any organs.

Pork tapeworm belongs to the class of flat parasites, is a tapeworm. It is also known as tapeworm or armed tapeworm. A sexually mature parasite can reach a length of 3 to 5 m. Its body consists of segments, on the head part there are suction cups that allow the helminth to attach to the intestinal walls. Pork tapeworm matures in the human intestine.

The parasite is capable of infecting different parts of the body. These are not only internal organs, but also muscles, skin, skeletal system, eyes.

The viability of helminth larvae is up to 5 years, so they can be in the human body for a long time, poisoning it with waste products and exerting mechanical pressure on tissues. An infected person may not suspect for a long time that a larva of a pork tapeworm has entered his body.

The reasons for the development of the disease

Infection with cysticercosis occurs as a result of:

  • eating contaminated food or water, dirty fruits and vegetables;
  • neglect of the norms of personal hygiene;
  • contact with larvae that entered the external environment along with the feces of a person infected with pork tapeworm.
infection with cysticercosis
infection with cysticercosis

Cysticercosis in humans is possible when infected with segments of the body of the worm, which, together with eggs, penetrate from the intestine into the stomach during vomiting. Infection of this kind occurs when a person is an intermediate host of sexually mature tapeworms. Under such conditions, teniasis is complicated by cysticercosis of the internal organs.

Symptoms and forms of the disease

Within two months from the moment the helminthic eggs entered the human body, no particular harm is inflicted on the body. But after the larvae are fully formed, they get out into the bloodstream through the intestinal walls and begin to spread throughout the body.

A large number of parasites reach the liver and remain in it, contributing to its gradual destruction. The rest of the larvae move to other organs. They are able to reach the brain.

When infected, a person may experience the following symptoms:

  • not too pronounced pain in the upper abdomen, nausea, stool disorders. This group of manifestations is associated with the mechanical action of parasites on the intestinal mucous membranes, which are damaged by suction cups and "hooks" on their bodies;
  • decreased appetite, headaches, feeling of nausea, dizziness. All this is characteristic of the general picture of intoxication, which arises in response to the toxic waste products of helminths;
  • itching in the anal area;
  • irritability, nervousness;
  • weight loss.

Symptoms of the disease differ depending on which organs or structures were affected by cysticercus.

Varieties of cysticercosis depending on the area of ​​the lesion

Pork tapeworm larvae are able to penetrate:

  • structures of the brain. In this case, such forms of helminthiasis as damage to the base of the organ, cerebral hemispheres, and the ventricular system are distinguished. Mixed brain lesions are considered separately. This form of CNS damage is characterized by dizziness, headaches that do not disappear after taking pain relievers, as well as pain in the back of the head, impaired taste, sometimes hallucinations, convulsions, and epileptic seizures. With cysticercus lesions of the brain structures, neurocysticercosis is often diagnosed, which can provoke a death;
  • eyeball. According to observations, eye damage is observed in half of patients who are infected with pork tapeworm larvae. Parasites provoke changes in the lens, retinal detachment. Patients note a significant decrease in the level of vision, profuse lacrimation, a feeling of pain in the eye area. A likely complication of cysticercosis is complete loss of vision;
  • muscles, skin, subcutaneous tissue. This form is characterized by an almost asymptomatic course. The only sign that will allow one to suspect the presence of pathology is dense nodules that form in the tissues and rise above the skin. They do not cause pain, over time they become more dense. A hives-like rash may appear on the surface of the skin;
  • a heart. When the heart muscle is affected by parasites, frequent pains appear in the chest area, rapid heartbeat. It is quite difficult to detect cysticercus larvae in the heart;
  • lungs. In this case, the pathological process proceeds without pronounced symptoms;
  • liver. Infection of the liver with parasites affects the work of all internal organs. This is a rare form of cysticercosis.

If characteristic symptoms appear, you should immediately contact a medical institution. A doctor-specialist in cysticercosis - a parasitologist - will prescribe diagnostic measures, the results of which will determine the optimal course of treatment.

finnose meat
finnose meat

The prognosis of the disease depends on which organs or systems were affected by worms. If cysticercosis of the skin or muscle tissue was detected, then the treatment process will not be too difficult, and the likelihood of complications is minimal. When the internal organs are damaged by helminths, especially in the case of a running process, the prognosis is poor.

Diagnostics

In order to confirm the diagnosis of "Cysticercosis", carry out such activities as:

  • collection of anamnesis;
  • examination of blood and cerebrospinal fluid;
  • serological blood test to detect antibodies to parasites;
  • electroencephalography;
  • angiography of the vessels of the head;
  • MRI;
  • CT;
  • radiography of the lungs;
  • histological examination of subcutaneous nodules.

It also requires differentiation of cysticercosis from pathologies such as a brain tumor, toxoplasmosis, pulmonary and bone tuberculosis.

Features of the treatment of cysticercosis in humans

The basis of the treatment of teniasis is antiparasitic therapy, which is carried out in a hospital setting.

In order to cause the death of pork tapeworms, the following means are prescribed:

  • Praziquantel;
  • Albendazole;
  • Niclosamide;
  • Nemozole.

Antiparasitic therapy is complemented by symptomatic treatment. We are talking about taking medications that suppress the severity of the body's reactions to the presence of helminths. Patients are prescribed antihistamines, anticonvulsants, sedatives.

Surgical treatment is required only if the pathological focus has been reliably detected and if its removal does not cause serious damage to the surrounding structures.

Prevention

To prevent infection, you should:

  • observe the rules of personal hygiene;
  • eat only well-cooked meat;
  • wash vegetables and fruits before eating;
  • consult a doctor at the first signs of dysfunction of internal organs.

Cysticercosis is a dangerous parasitic disease that can provoke irreversible organ dysfunctions and lead to death. The pork tapeworm larva can live in the human body for up to 15 years without causing severe symptoms. This leads to the fact that helminthiasis is diagnosed at advanced stages.

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