Signs Of Nematodosis In Humans And Its Treatment

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Signs Of Nematodosis In Humans And Its Treatment
Signs Of Nematodosis In Humans And Its Treatment

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Nematodes are understood as a group of diseases provoked by various types of helminths. These include nematodes, which are roundworms that lead a parasitic lifestyle. Human nematodes cause over 30 diseases of various body systems.

Photo nematodes
Photo nematodes

Content

  1. Classification of nematodes
  2. Ways of infection in humans
  3. Symptoms of nematodes
  4. Diagnostic methods
  5. Treatment
  6. Basic drugs
  7. Folk remedies
  8. Prevention
  9. Output

Classification of nematodes

Parasites become provocateurs of the following pathologies in humans:

  • ascariasis, in which the roundworm roundworm parasitizes in the body in the area of ​​the small intestine;
  • enterobiasis, often found in children in the form of pinworms parasitizing in the intestines;
  • trichinosis, manifested by activity in the submucosa of the small intestine and muscle tissues of small worms;
  • trichocephalosis, provoked by the whipworm, which lives in the small intestine;
  • toxocariasis, in which toxocars spread through the bloodstream to various organs;
  • strongyloidosis with the penetration of intestinal acne larvae into the body through the skin;
  • ankylostomiasis that occurs against the background of worms entering the human body through the skin.

In humans, extraintestinal nematodes are also noted. With these diseases, parasites are localized in the epidermis (dracunculiasis, streptocerciasis), the eye membranes (onchocerciasis), and the respiratory organs (tominxosis).

Nematodes and cestodoses are common in animals. Hookworm infection and trichocephallosis, in addition to humans, occurs in cats and dogs. Plants are also susceptible to parasite infestation. Most often, nematodes infect their root system (kaktoderosis, pratilenhoz) and stems (ditylenkhoz).

Ways of infection in humans

Helminths can enter the human body in several ways. The main route of infection is oral. The source of nematodes is unprocessed foods (vegetables and fruits, meat). Those who eat raw fish are at increased risk of infection.

worms in herring
worms in herring

The roundworm rishta, which causes dracunculiasis, enters the human body when contaminated water is consumed. Especially a lot of helminths are found in closed waters. Some types of larvae enter the body through skin contact with the source of the parasite. Larvae of nematodes can be found on public items. There is also a risk of infection upon contact with them.

There is a transmission path of transmission (at filarias). These parasite worms are distinguished by a long body. Their penetration into the human body is possible with insect bites (mosquitoes, horseflies, biting midges, midges).

Symptoms of nematodes

The signs of disease depend on the location of the parasites. Since roundworms feed on blood and tissue, the general symptoms of their presence in the body appear as:

  • skin allergies;
  • an increase in the size of the lymph nodes;
  • muscle pain;
  • temperature rise;
  • swelling of the limbs.
Skin rashes with opisthorchiasis
Skin rashes with opisthorchiasis

The main site of localization of helminths is the gastrointestinal tract. This manifests itself in the form of frequent diarrhea or constipation, bloating, anal itching, stomach pain, persistent nausea. A parasitic round worm that settles under the human skin provokes skin itching and inflammation in individual muscles in humans.

Parasites localized in the respiratory system lead to frequent shortness of breath, coughing fits. The larvae living in the blood provoke anemia, pain in the head. Helminths that have settled in the eyes cause conjunctivitis, blurred vision, lacrimation.

Diagnostic methods

The main way to identify parasites in the body is to examine the patient's feces for the presence of their eggs. Additionally, a person donates blood for biochemical analysis. Complex types of nematodes are detected by taking biopsies from various organs.

Diagnosis of damage to the body by worms also involves ultrasound, X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging. Immunological studies can be carried out, according to which a specialist detects antibodies to certain pathogens of nematodes.

Treatment

Therapy for diseases provoked by parasites is complex. In addition to anthelmintics, the patient takes probiotics to restore bowel function. Oxygen therapy is an additional treatment. With it, oxygen is introduced into the intestines, which contributes to the death of helminths and their rapid removal from the body.

Basic drugs

The following drugs are prescribed for the treatment of nematodes:

  • Albendazole, effective against many types of worms and also effective against their larvae;
  • Pyrantel, used for ascariasis and having less toxicity than Albendazole;
  • Piperazine, which has the least harm to the body among all anthelminthic medicines;
  • Levamisole, used for strongyloidosis and hookworm disease.

In the treatment of enterobiasis, the preferred drug due to the least toxicity is "Mebendazole".

Vermox
Vermox

Folk remedies

At home, to get rid of nematodes, it is recommended to use the following drinks:

  1. Ginger tincture. A peeled and grated root of a plant in an amount of 0.6 kg is poured into 0.6 liters of vodka. The mixture is infused for two weeks. It must be consumed half an hour before meals, 6 ml three times a day for 14 days.
  2. Onion infusion. The whole onion is finely chopped into cubes and poured over with boiling water. The mixture is infused overnight. In the morning it must be drunk on an empty stomach. Complete the procedure for another 5 days.

Prevention

To prevent worms from entering the body, daily hygiene must be observed. Hand washing is always required. It is also important to wash fruits and vegetables before eating. When cooking meat and fish, long-term heat treatment is required. It is not recommended to drink water unboiled raw.

To avoid contamination of pets, they must be treated with anthelmintic treatment. You should regularly carry out wet cleaning in the apartment, and also change bed linen more often.

Output

Nematodosis combines various types of diseases caused by helminths. There are large quantities of nematodes dangerous to humans in fish, raw meat, and closed reservoirs. Getting rid of parasites involves taking toxic antihelminthic drugs. Lack of therapy leads to the development of life-threatening diseases of internal organs in a person.

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