Giardiasis In Children: Symptoms And Treatment

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Giardiasis In Children: Symptoms And Treatment
Giardiasis In Children: Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Giardiasis In Children: Symptoms And Treatment

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Video: Giardiasis - Giardia lamblia Infection 2023, February
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Giardia in children is a very common problem that affects about 30% of young patients. In many cases, the disease is asymptomatic and is detected only during a physical examination. If this parasite is found in a child, do not be alarmed. Some doctors, including Dr. Komarovsky, believe that it is not at all necessary to treat giardiasis when it does not manifest itself with unpleasant symptoms.

Content

  1. What is Giardia?
  2. Why does a child have lamblia?
  3. Symptoms of giardiasis in a child
  4. How to get tested for lamblia?
  5. How to treat giardia in children?
  6. Pills
  7. Folk remedies
  8. Prevention measures
  9. Output

What is Giardia?

These are the simplest unicellular organisms that have a pear-shaped body and a flagellum for movement. They come in two forms:

  1. Vegetative is a mobile lamblia, which is located in the small intestine. It attaches to the mucous membrane with the help of processes and damages it. This form is unstable to the effects of the external environment; outside the body, such lamblia quickly dies.
  2. Spore (or cyst) - is a pathogen surrounded by a protective shell. It lives in the colon and can be excreted in the feces. The cyst can withstand temperature extremes, is stored for a long time in soil, water, and on household items.

Giardia parasites not only in humans, they affect domestic animals, rodents. Microorganisms live and multiply without oxygen, so they thrive in the intestines, feeding on digested food particles. This disease rarely leads to serious complications: lamblia do not live in the blood of a child, and they are also unable to penetrate into other organs. Parasites persist for a long time in the small intestine without causing any inconvenience, but they can be activated when the immune system is disturbed.

Why does a child have lamblia?

In kindergartens and schools, the most common route of infection is contact and household. If even one person is sick in a team, lamblia cysts can get on toys, books, and other common items. Children often have the habit of licking their fingers, biting their nails, so that the pathogen can easily enter the digestive tract, 10-15 spores are enough for infection. Another way to become infected with this parasite is through food (through food containing spores).

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The disease can be transmitted to a child from pets (cats, dogs, hamsters). There is a risk of infection of the infant during childbirth (with eruption of the head) if the mother is a carrier of these parasites.

Symptoms of giardiasis in a child

In the acute period, the disease is manifested by disorders of the digestive system. These include:

  • diarrhea more than 5 times a day, with the release of liquid fetid feces;
  • flatulence, rumbling in the stomach;
  • vomiting and nausea;
  • pain in the epigastrium, right abdomen;
  • lack of appetite;
  • weight loss (due to impaired digestion and absorption of nutrients).

When lamblia multiplies in the intestine, the body is poisoned with their metabolic products, general symptoms of intoxication occur: headache, an increase in body temperature to subfebrile (no more than 38 ° C), dizziness, weakness, muscle pain, sleep disturbances, enlargement of the liver and spleen. The child becomes irritable, whiny, and does poorly at school.

Types of temperature
Types of temperature

Sometimes, skin manifestations of giardiasis develop - rashes, itching of the skin, increased pigmentation, cracks in the feet, sticky lips.

How to get tested for lamblia?

Coproscopy is a simple and painless diagnostic method. It consists in detecting lamblia in a child's feces using a microscope. For the study to be informative, you must adhere to the following rules:

  1. 3 days before the test, it is recommended to exclude meat products and red vegetables from the diet.
  2. Before collecting feces, you need to wash the child, wash the pot with soap.
  3. It is important to make sure that no urine gets into your stool.
  4. The resulting material should be placed in a sterile container and delivered to the laboratory as soon as possible.

The coprogram is necessarily performed at the stage of preparing the child for planned surgical intervention: the doctor cannot perform the operation if lamblia is found in the analysis.

Previously, the method of studying the duodenal contents for the presence of lamblia was popular. This is a very unpleasant test: a child needs to insert a flexible tube through the esophagus and stomach into the duodenum to obtain a sample of bile and digested food. This method does not always help to confirm the diagnosis, so doctors recommend choosing less invasive procedures, especially for children.

Modern methods of detecting lamblias have been developed:

  • serological reactions (detection of antibodies to the pathogen in venous blood);
  • PCR (polymerase chain reaction) - it allows you to determine the DNA of the parasite in the feces, even in those cases when coproscopy showed nothing.

To exclude other causes of the disease, an ultrasound of the abdominal organs is performed.

How to treat giardia in children?

Many doctors believe that the treatment of giardiasis should be started only with prolonged diarrhea (more than 3 days). According to modern research, lamblia in the liver does not survive due to the aggressive effects of bile, so they cannot provoke the development of complications - cholangitis or hepatitis. Accordingly, the asymptomatic carriage of microorganisms does not require drug therapy.

Pills

To cleanse the body of lamblia, a proven treatment regimen is used, consisting of three stages:

  1. Preparatory. A week before taking the drugs, a special diet is prescribed. Allowed foodstuffs are low-fat types of meat and fish, boiled or stewed vegetables, kefir, cottage cheese, cereals. During this period, the child should not be given milk, sweet pastries, carbonated drinks, pasta, chocolate. This diet helps to cleanse the intestines, reduce the number of vegetative lamblia. Additionally, sorbents are used (activated carbon, Enterosgel). The use of enemas is prohibited, it can cause additional damage to the intestinal mucosa.
  2. Taking antiparasitic pills. To eliminate lamblia, drugs from the group of imidazoles or nitrofurans are used. The dosage and duration of treatment depends on the age of the child and the severity of the symptoms. Usually the course of therapy does not exceed 7 days.
  3. Normalization of the digestive tract. During this period, enzyme preparations and probiotics are used to improve food digestion. It is recommended to continue the diet.

The effectiveness of treatment is assessed using a coprogram - there should be no parasite cysts in the feces.

Folk remedies

In alternative medicine, there are many methods of dealing with intestinal parasites. The most famous of them:

  1. Sagebrush. The grass must be dried and ground into powder. The resulting medicine should be consumed in 1 teaspoon with a large volume of water.
  2. Cucumber drink. To prepare it, you need to take large, ripe fruits, cut them into pieces and put them in a saucepan so that it is 25% full. Then pour boiling water over, let cool. Strain the infusion and take at least 0.5 liters per day. They can replace tea or compote.

    black walnut
    black walnut
  3. Application of black walnut tincture. You should take 1 tablespoon of tree leaves, brew in 1 glass of boiling water. Strain the broth and refrigerate. It is enough for a child to give 1 drop of tincture diluted in half a glass of milk or water.
  4. Pumpkin seeds. You need to eat 60-100 grams per day, the amount depends on the patient's age.

Prevention measures

An important link in the prevention of Giardia infection is teaching the child personal hygiene skills. It is necessary to teach him to wash his hands before eating, after using the toilet, playing in the sandbox. All fruits and vegetables should be doused with boiling water to destroy the parasite cysts. For young children, it is recommended to limit swimming in open fresh water bodies, which are excellent reservoirs for lamblia.

If you have an animal in your home, teach your child to wash their hands every time they come into contact with them. Clean the litter box regularly because cat or dog feces can become a source of infection.

Output

Although lamblia belongs to the group of intestinal parasites, they do not always cause disturbances in the digestive system, and never lead to complications. Therefore, do not worry if the child has cysts of this microorganism. In this case, you need to visit a pediatrician who will assess the health of the little patient and prescribe treatment if necessary.

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