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Video: Toxoplasmosis In A Child: Symptoms And Treatment
2023 Author: Riley Dean | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 09:15
Toxoplasmosis occurs when the body is infected with parasites (toxoplasma). The carriers of the infection are cats, in whose intestines the worms reach puberty and lay eggs (oocysts). Strong immunity suppresses the activity of the parasite, and therefore the symptoms of toxoplasmosis in children 6-8 years old are mild. In case of infection of a weakened organism, parasites affect the liver, spleen, brain and other organs, provoking the death of the patient.
- What is toxoplasmosis?
- Infection routes
- Folk remedies
- Prevention measures
What is toxoplasmosis?
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by infection of the body with toxoplasma.
The life cycle of these parasites occurs in animals. In the case of penetration into the human intestine, Toxoplasma does not lay eggs, but forms cysts containing larvae. Such formations penetrate into the circulatory system and spread through the internal organs.
The body normally suppresses parasites, so the disease does not cause severe symptoms. The first signs of toxoplasmosis in children occur against the background of a weakening of natural defenses. This occurs under the influence of viral and infectious pathologies. However, in such cases, the course of toxoplasmosis rarely gives serious complications.
Pathology is dangerous for patients who:
- took immunosuppressants;
- are infected with HIV;
- irradiated with radiation.
The herpes virus is capable of provoking the development of severe complications in toxoplasmosis, since the latter depresses the immune system. Also, a certain danger is posed by the disease for newborns in whom the body is not adapted to the effects of pathogenic agents.
Toxoplasmosis is characterized by the fact that after the initial infection, a persistent immunity to toxoplasma is developed. Re-development of the disease is possible in patients with HIV or other autoimmune disorders.
Oocytes are excreted together with the feces of animals. Therefore, Toxoplasma infection often occurs through contact with soil or litter boxes.
Parasite infection is possible in other ways:
- consumption of uncooked meat;
- contaminated blood transfusion (rare);
- through open wounds or mucous membranes;
- consumption of dirty vegetables and fruits, water.
The possibility of transmission of parasites from mother to fetus is not excluded. In this case, intrauterine toxoplasmosis develops, causing the most severe consequences.
More often, the first symptoms of toxoplasmosis occur in a child 2-3 years old. In young children, the disease develops extremely rarely, provided that intrauterine infection has not occurred.
The following phenomena indicate the presence of acquired toxoplasmosis:
- a persistent increase in body temperature up to 37.5 degrees;
- joint and muscle pain;
- enlargement of the liver, spleen and lymph nodes;
- rashes on the body.
Depending on the location of the worms, toxoplasmosis manifests itself in the form of the following symptoms:
- yellowing of the skin with liver damage;
- decreased appetite with gastrointestinal dysfunction;
- deterioration of vision, clouding of the lens in ophthalmic disorders;
- heart rhythm disturbance, shortness of breath;
- convulsions and paralysis of the extremities, increased intracranial pressure with brain infection.
The nature of the consequences of toxoplasmosis for a child during pregnancy is determined depending on the period in which the infection occurred. The most dangerous infection is considered in the first trimester, when the main organs and systems are laid. Infection during this period can cause congenital pathologies of the central nervous system (hydrocephalus, convulsive syndrome, calcification of the brain), liver, heart.
Moreover, it is not immediately possible to determine whether toxoplasmosis has affected a child. The primary signs of disorders caused by intrauterine infection occur over several months or years. This is indicated by:
- mental retardation;
- epileptic seizures;
- early puberty;
- abnormal structure of the skull.
Also, for a child, toxoplasmosis is dangerous in that it provokes optic nerve atrophy, which leads to complete blindness. And with intrauterine damage in children, organs do not fully develop.
Doctor Komarovsky speaks extremely negatively about toxoplasmosis in children. The pediatrician confirms that the parasites are most dangerous during the initial infection during pregnancy. Moreover, the likelihood of infection of the fetus directly depends on the current period. According to Komarovsky, in the first trimester, infection occurs with a probability of 15%, in the second - 25%, in the third - 70%.
Toxoplasmosis in an infant is rarely diagnosed. This is explained by the peculiarities of the clinical picture. With parasitic pathology, jaundice, cough, and rash occur. Therefore, doctors do blood, lymphatic, or cerebrospinal fluid tests to determine the cause of these symptoms. However, the cysts that cause these phenomena are localized in the tissues, and therefore these examination methods do not help to identify toxoplasma.
An enzyme immunoassay is considered optimal in terms of diagnostic results. This method allows not only to detect in the blood specific antibodies produced by the body after infection with Toxoplasma, but also to determine approximately the period when the infection occurred.
If parasites are detected, additional examinations of the patient are carried out using MRI, CT, X-ray, ECG. Hardware techniques are used to determine the localization of pathogenic microorganisms and diagnose changes that have arisen due to infection. With the congenital form of the disease, a puncture of the lymph nodes or spinal cord is prescribed.
The treatment regimen for toxoplasmosis is developed taking into account the nature of the concomitant disorders that caused the underlying disease. In the therapy of pathology, intracellular antibiotics are used. The action of these drugs is similar to cytostatics, which are prescribed in the treatment of tumors.
In the treatment of toxoplasmosis, the following are used:
- Delagil. The drug is based on chloroquinine, which is effective for malaria but can cause cysts to die off.
- "Fansidar". The drug, based on sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine, is used in the treatment of children under 7 years of age. Fansidar is often appointed as a replacement for Delagil. At the same time, taking both drugs at the same time is prohibited.
- "Rovamycin". The drug based on spiromycin is considered the most effective. However, "Rovamycin" more often than other drugs causes complications, therefore it is not used in the treatment of toxoplasmosis in children. Due to the fact that spiromycin does not cross the placenta, this drug is prescribed for the defeat of toxoplasma in pregnant women.
Depending on the nature of the accompanying complications, the following are used together with antibiotics:
- Etiotropic drugs. Basically, a combination of "Chloridin" and "Bactrim" is used for toxoplasmosis. Etiotropic treatment is carried out for 5-10 days, after which it is necessary to take a break for 10 days and repeat the prescribed therapy.
- Folic acid, vitamin complexes, probiotics. They help to strengthen general immunity.
- Antihistamines. They are used to eliminate skin rashes.
- Glucorticosteroids. Are prescribed for damage to the central nervous system.
If the course of the disease becomes chronic, the patient is recommended to regularly take immunomodulators.
Treatment of toxoplasmosis with traditional medicine is carried out subject to the agreement of the selected drugs with the doctor.
Herbal preparations help to cope with the disease. In the treatment of children are used:
- flowers of tansy and chamomile (100 g each);
- wormwood and gentian root (50 g each);
- buckthorn bark (125 gr).
The components are mixed with each other. From the resulting composition, you need to take a tablespoon of herbs and pour boiled water. The product is infused in a thermos overnight. The infusion should be drunk on an empty stomach 50 minutes before meals.
Pumpkin seeds give a positive effect in terms of treating toxoplasmosis. To speed up the death of cysts, a decoction of bird cherry (100 grams of branches per 2 liters of water) helps, which must be drunk twice a day for a month, a quarter of a glass.
To prevent Toxoplasma contamination, hands should be thoroughly washed after each contact with animals. To prevent infection, it is recommended to regularly deworm cats, fry meat well and handle dishes, vegetables and fruits with boiling water.
Toxoplasmosis is a dangerous parasitic disease that develops when the body is infected with toxoplasma. In the normal state, the activity of pathogenic agents is suppressed by the immune system. Under the influence of provoking factors that cause a sharp weakening of defense mechanisms, Toxoplasma cysts spread throughout the body, provoking multiple lesions. In the treatment of the disease, "heavy" antibiotics are used in combination with other drugs.
Last updated 23 June 2017 at 15:40Reading time: 7 minutesHaving often heard this word, parents do not attach much importance, because they are sure that this problem will not affect them. But by fencing off possible problems, you cannot reduce the chances of their occurrence
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