Tick-borne Encephalitis Vaccine

Table of contents:

Tick-borne Encephalitis Vaccine
Tick-borne Encephalitis Vaccine

Video: Tick-borne Encephalitis Vaccine

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: October 2020 ACIP Meeting - Tick-borne Encephalitis Vaccine 2023, February
Anonim
Encephalitis tick bite
Encephalitis tick bite

Spring is the beginning of a dangerous period of tick activity. Tick ​​vaccination helps protect human health and life from the development of a deadly viral infection - tick-borne encephalitis and promotes quiet rest and work in nature.

Content

  1. Why do you need a vaccine
  2. When to vaccinate against tick-borne encephalitis
  3. Vaccination schedule
  4. Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine for children
  5. Procedure cost
  6. How long does a tick vaccination work in humans?
  7. Contraindications and precautions
  8. Precautions after vaccination
  9. Reaction and side effects
  10. Complications after vaccination
  11. What to do if a tick bites a vaccinated person
  12. Vaccination after a tick bite: does it make sense?
  13. Output

Why do you need a vaccine

Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine is a procedure for introducing weakened pathogenic organisms into the human body in order to develop an immune response and further protection.

A person needs to be vaccinated for several reasons:

  1. Encephalitis is a dangerous viral disease, the development of which leads to damage to the human nervous system.
  2. The health care system annually records more than 10 thousand cases of infection.
  3. Ticks, as the main carriers of the virus, are found in forests, reserves, fields and city parks.
  4. According to statistics, 20% of ticks are active carriers of the disease.
  5. The life span of an infected tick is 4 years.
  6. The percentage of fatal cases of encephalitis in the European part of the continent is 2%, in the Far East the mortality rate is 20%.
  7. Goats and cows do not get encephalitis, but they become carriers of the virus after a tick bite.
Consequences of encephalitis
Consequences of encephalitis

Tick-borne encephalitis is common throughout Russia and poses a danger to all population groups.

When to vaccinate against tick-borne encephalitis

Vaccination should be carried out in the following cases:

  • an upcoming trip to an area with a high risk of infection for recreation or work (reserves, forests, fields);
  • permanent residence or professional activity in a potentially dangerous territory;
  • direct contact with infected biological material;
  • potential consumption of meat and milk from infected animals;
  • breeding cattle.

The procedure will reduce the risk to human life and health and helps to eliminate discomfort and psychological stress while staying in a dangerous area.

Vaccination schedule

You can get a tick vaccination in a clinic, private medical institutions, kindergartens and schools (for children). To develop immunity against tick-borne encephalitis, the vaccine is administered in two stages:

  • the first is in the fall;
  • the second - in winter (after 1-3 months).
Cephalitis virus
Cephalitis virus

In emergency cases, if a person has to urgently go to a potentially dangerous region with a high risk of infection, the second injection of the drug is carried out 2 weeks after the first stage.

Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine for children

Children, just like adults, are susceptible to viral infection and often spend more time in potentially dangerous places while playing, walking, or attending a summer camp. The child is allowed to be vaccinated from 1 year of age (the earliest age from 4 months).

Encevir
Encevir

Regardless of the venue (private clinic, preschool, school), only special formulations should be used with children.

Procedure cost

The cost of the drug for the procedure varies depending on the manufacturer. Domestic medicines - from 500 rubles, imported - from 1000 rubles per session. Despite the difference in cost, it is believed that it is better to use European vaccines because of the less pronounced reaction and the number of side effects after administration of the substance.

How long does a tick vaccination work in humans?

The duration of protection of human health from tick-borne encephalitis after vaccination is 1 year. In the case of many years of stay in an area with a high risk of infection, vaccination should be done annually.

Contraindications and precautions

Despite the fact that the procedure does not require lengthy preparation, before vaccination, you need to consult a doctor and eliminate the risk of complications. The patient's state of health at the time of the injection directly affects the state of health and response after immunization.

Inflammation of the brain
Inflammation of the brain

The tick vaccine is contraindicated in the case of:

  • colds, ARVI;
  • tuberculosis;
  • lupus erythematosus;
  • AIDS;
  • temporary or permanent decrease in immune defense;
  • detecting a severe reaction to previous immunization against tick-borne encephalitis;
  • pregnancy, breastfeeding;
  • less than 1 year old;
  • individual intolerance to egg white;
  • impaired renal function;
  • liver dysfunction;
  • detection of malignant neoplasms;
  • disorders of the circulatory system;
  • disruption of the endocrine system;
  • epilepsy;
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • state of alcoholic intoxication.

In case of detection of a cold or other temporary disorders, the vaccination is carried out after the completion of treatment. If, during the diagnosis, diseases associated with the work of internal organs or a strong decrease in immunity were detected, the procedure is prohibited.

Precautions after vaccination

To exclude complications and severe malaise after vaccination, you must adhere to the following rules:

  1. During the next week, do not take a bath, exclude visiting a bath, sauna. Carry out hygiene procedures using a shower, trying to avoid getting wet or rubbing the injection site.
  2. It is not recommended to visit crowded places, work or play sports on the day of the procedure. Your well-being can be severely affected by a reaction to the vaccine.
  3. After vaccination, alcoholic beverages should not be consumed due to the risk of rapid development of complications and an allergic reaction.

If a severe reaction to the vaccine remains within the next 3 days, the person should see a doctor.

Reaction and side effects

In most cases, subject to the doctor's recommendations and the absence of contraindications, vaccination does not lead to complications. However, the signs of slight discomfort after the procedure are considered a normal reaction.

The body's natural reaction after a tick injection includes:

  • slight redness, swelling, itching around the injection site (up to 5 days);
  • increased body temperature (up to 16 hours after the procedure);
  • dizziness;
  • weakness, drowsiness;
  • headache;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • diarrhea;
  • an increase in the size of the lymph nodes near the injection site.

The reaction to vaccination is short-lived and resembles the development of a viral infection. In a normal course, the patient's condition quickly returns to normal, otherwise a visit to a doctor is required.

Complications after vaccination

If a slight malaise and redness of the injection site are a normal reaction of the body, then the development of complications can lead to a general deterioration in health.

Complications include:

  • signs of an allergic reaction (rash in the area of ​​drug administration, anaphylactic shock, urticaria, Quincke's edema);
  • suppuration at the injection site;
  • high body temperature for a long time;
  • convulsions;
  • disruption of the cardiovascular system;
  • exacerbation of chronic diseases.

Violations can develop in the event of an incorrect procedure, non-compliance with contraindications, or the expiration of the drug's shelf life. In case of complications, patients should consult a doctor as soon as possible.

What to do if a tick bites a vaccinated person

The vaccine helps the body develop a defense against a specific disease, but does not prevent tick bites.

Tick ​​bite
Tick ​​bite

If, after the procedure, a bite was detected, you need to come to a medical institution and ask to pull out the tick (you should not pull out the insect on your own because of the risk of tearing off the abdomen), inform about the past vaccination. After the insect has been neutralized, the patient is registered for 21 days in case of symptoms of health problems.

This is necessary due to the fact that a tick can be a carrier of diseases such as:

  • tick-borne encephalitis;
  • borreliosis (Lyme disease);
  • ehrlichiosis;
  • Siberian tick-borne typhus.

For additional safety net, it is recommended to refrain from visiting potentially dangerous areas during the period of tick activity, if necessary, use repellents (marked "from ticks"), timely examine the body for a bite and carefully monitor your health.

Vaccination after a tick bite: does it make sense?

Unfortunately, vaccination is a preventive measure for the development of the disease and the formation of an immune response and is carried out before direct infection with the virus.

If a tick has bitten an unvaccinated person, you must:

  1. Remove the parasite from a medical facility no later than 24 hours after the bite.
  2. Follow the doctor's instructions carefully and wait for the result within 1 month.

Encephalitis is a serious disease that not everyone can cope with. It is because of this that timely vaccination is considered an important stage in protection against viral infection.

Output

Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis is a necessary measure for people temporarily or permanently staying in areas with a high risk of infection. The carrier of the infection - the tick is found everywhere and poses a danger to the life and health of all groups of the population. Timely vaccination, carried out in a municipal or private hospital, can reduce the risk of contracting encephalitis and the development of severe consequences of the disease.

Popular by topic