The Use Of Immunoglobulin For A Tick Bite

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The Use Of Immunoglobulin For A Tick Bite
The Use Of Immunoglobulin For A Tick Bite

Video: The Use Of Immunoglobulin For A Tick Bite

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Video: What to Do After a Tick Bite - Johns Hopkins Lyme Disease Research Center 2023, February
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Immunoglobulin
Immunoglobulin

Tick ​​immunoglobulin is used for emergency prevention and for the treatment of tick-borne encephalitis. The remedy is prescribed for adults and children. The injection is given intramuscularly. It is forbidden to use the drug on your own, since the drug has certain contraindications, the drug can provoke the appearance of severe allergic reactions.

Content

  1. How does the immunoglobulin drug work?
  2. When is it worth using it
  3. Dosage
  4. Contraindications
  5. Side effects
  6. special instructions

How does the immunoglobulin drug work?

Tick-borne encephalitis is a viral disease. Therefore, the only method of effective treatment is the stimulation of the protective functions of the body with the help of interferon or human immunoglobulin.

Immunoglobulin - purified fractions of specific antibodies IgG, IgM, which are isolated from human blood. Proteins bind and destroy viral particles, activates the synthesis of antibodies. The effectiveness of the drug is 70-90%. But even with the incomplete action of the immunoglobulin, the disease occurs in people in a mild form, without severe neurological disorders.

Donors are tested for HIV, hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases. The content of type G antibodies is at least 1:80.

The course of the disease is influenced by the time of drug administration. Maximum effectiveness is adduction within 24 hours after the bite. But on the second day, pathogenic microorganisms penetrate the cells.

The release form of the drug is ampoules with injection solution. In 1 ml of solution - 100-160 mg of immunoglobulin. Additional components - aminoacetic acid (glycine), sodium chloride, purified water. The shelf life of the medicine is 24 months. Storage and transportation conditions - temperature + 2-8 degrees.

When is it worth using it

Immunoglobulin is administered to prevent the development of tick-borne encephalitis, reduce the risk of developing dangerous neurological disorders. The injection must be given no later than 4 days after the bite.

The incubation period for a tick bite in a person with strong immunity is 3-14 days, sometimes up to a month. If the protective functions are weakened, signs of infection appear within several hours. With tick-borne encephalitis, brain cells and gray matter are affected, neurological disorders develop. The main symptoms are fever, which is not reduced by antipyretic drugs, muscle and headache. A person is worried about chills, nausea, hyperemia of the skin.

Forest tick
Forest tick

In what cases is immunoglobulin administered after a tick bite for a person:

  • to prevent the development of a viral infection in people who have not been vaccinated, or less than a month has passed since the vaccination;
  • vaccinated people with a large number of bites to prevent infection;
  • people who go to places where there is a high probability of a tick bite;
  • with intolerance to the components of the vaccine against tick-borne meningoencephalitis;
  • in the treatment of pathology.

The first injection is given when you go to the hospital. Then the patient is monitored, when characteristic signs appear, therapy is prescribed. Tick-borne encephalitis therapy is carried out only in a hospital. It is possible to make PCR diagnostics of blood to detect the virus 14 days after the insect bite.

Dosage

There is no special immunoglobulin for children. The dosage for an adult and a child is calculated by the doctor based on the weight of the child. The standard dose is 0.1 ml / kg.

Therapeutic doses:

  1. Erased and abortive form. A standard dose is administered daily, the course is 3-5 days. In total, at least 21 ml of the medicine must be kept.
  2. Meningeal form. 0.1 ml / kg at intervals of 10-12 hours. The minimum course is 5 days. Treatment is stopped when the condition improves. The total dose of the drug is at least 70 ml.
  3. Focal form. 0.1 ml / kg 2-3 times a day, in severe cases - 0.15 ml / kg. The duration of therapy is 5-6 days until the condition stabilizes. The minimum total dose of the drug is 80-130 ml.

The average cost of 1 ampoule of immunoglobulin is 540-600 rubles. A free injection is given if you have a compulsory medical insurance or an "Antiklesch" insurance policy.

Contraindications

There are a number of absolute and relative restrictions on the administration of anti-tick immunoglobulin.

Contraindications:

  • allergy to a drug;
  • chronic nephritis;
  • pathology of blood and connective tissue;
  • bronchial asthma;
  • dermatitis of allergic origin;
  • urticaria, which is accompanied by frequent relapses.

During pregnancy, during lactation, immunoglobulin is administered only when urgently needed. There are no data on the safety of the drug for pregnant and lactating women.

Side effects

Immunoglobulin is a human blood preparation. Therefore, when the drug is administered, various negative reactions may occur within 24 hours after the injection.

Possible side effects:

  • redness of the skin, swelling at the injection site;
  • an increase in temperature to subfebrile marks - normally no later than 24 hours after the injection, indicators are not higher than 37.5 degrees;
  • itching, rash;
  • increase or decrease in blood pressure indicators, chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath;
  • weakness, drowsiness, increased fatigue, headache;
  • bouts of vomiting, abdominal pain;
  • hysterical dry cough;
  • profuse sweating;
  • feeling of numbness in the limbs.
Anaphylactic shock
Anaphylactic shock

Anaphylactic shock develops in 1-3% of cases. To track the reactions after the injection, the person is under the supervision of a doctor for 30 minutes. To prevent the occurrence of local reactions, the dose of the drug is injected into several areas.

special instructions

Immunoglobulin is a colorless liquid that precipitates. Shake the ampoule before use. The medicinal product cannot be stored after opening the bottle. Before use, the drug should be kept at a temperature of 18-22 degrees for at least 2 hours.

Immunoglobulin can be used with other medications, but administered separately, at an interval of at least 4 hours. Live vaccines can be given 12-14 weeks after immunoglobulin administration. Vaccination against encephalitis should be carried out 30 days after immunoglobulin therapy.

For people prone to allergic reactions, antihistamines are prescribed before and after the administration of immunoglobulin. In the presence of diseases of the immune system, an injection is given only against the background of appropriate therapy.

Before visiting places with a high risk of a tick bite, the injection must be given in advance, 2 days before the intended contact. The protection is valid for 4 weeks.

Immunoglobulin does not affect the reaction rate, attention. After the injection, you can drive a vehicle.

Drug analogues

In case of intolerance to immunoglobulin, antiviral tablets are used to prevent encephalitis.

Analogs

Name Benefits disadvantages
Yodantipyrine Price, increases the protective functions of the body. The effectiveness is lower than that of a vaccine or an injection of immunoglobulin. Cannot be used to treat children, pregnant and lactating women.
Remantadine Price, suitable for the prevention of tick-borne encephalitis. Take 3-5 days after insect bite. The medicine is contraindicated in children under 7 years of age. Cannot be taken in case of kidney and liver diseases. Side effects are common.

The administration of immunoglobulin after a tick bite is an attempt to prevent the development of the disease. But the injection does not give a 100% guarantee. To develop strong immunity, it is better to be vaccinated.

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