Stool Analysis In Children - Rules For Delivery And Decoding (coprogram) Of Stool Analysis

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Stool Analysis In Children - Rules For Delivery And Decoding (coprogram) Of Stool Analysis
Stool Analysis In Children - Rules For Delivery And Decoding (coprogram) Of Stool Analysis
Video: Stool Analysis In Children - Rules For Delivery And Decoding (coprogram) Of Stool Analysis
Video: Interpretation of Stool Examination 2023, February
Anonim

Last updated 30 August 2017 at 08:19 PM

Reading time: 7 minutes

Examination and coprograms in children of the first year of life and older age are required.

In order to accurately determine the presence or absence of disorders of the digestive and excretory system, diagnostics is assigned, as an analysis of the child's feces:

  • macroscopic examination. Stool examination to determine its correct color, shape, type, possible violations in the form of impurities, mucus, blood. In rare cases, there are obvious particles of undigested food;
  • microscopic examination. A careful study of the composition and content of feces. Shows fatty acids, fiber, starch and even parasites in the baby's intestines;
  • biochemical method. Includes analysis of fecal occult blood in children. Additionally, it determines the presence of essential intestinal enzymes such as lipase, lactose, bilirubin and stercobilin in the feces. The microbiological environment of the intestinal pH is being studied.

Content

  • 1 General analysis of feces
  • 2 Analysis of feces in a small child under one year old
  • 3 Coprogram in children after a year
  • 4 Study of feces for occult blood
  • 5 Feces for dysbiosis: decoding
  • 6 Analysis of feces for worms and their eggs
  • 7 Carbohydrates in feces
  • 8 Decoding coprogram in children

    8.1 Similar articles

General analysis of feces

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The coprological research method assesses the work of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as the pancreas, biliary tract and liver. Indicates inflammation, infections, viruses and bacteria in the baby's body.

Stool coprogram in infants and its norm should show:

  1. the bowel movement is sticky, sticky, or mushy. Quantity per day - 40-50 grams;
  2. yellow, yellow-green color;
  3. sour smell;
  4. pH level - 4.8-5.8;
  5. mucus is not detected;
  6. no blood;
  7. no soluble protein detected;
  8. stercobilin is present;
  9. bilirubin is found;
  10. no ammonia;
  11. detritus in any quantity;
  12. muscle fibers - little or no;
  13. there are no connecting fibers;
  14. no starch;
  15. digestible vegetable fiber is not detected;
  16. neutral fat. Isolated cases;
  17. fatty acids - a little;
  18. soap - not enough;
  19. leukocytes. There are single indicators.

Stool analysis in a small child under one year old

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A newborn baby who is artificially fed, as well as a child older than 6 months and up to one year, will have completely different indicators when undergoing diagnostics.

The coprogram in a baby from six months and a baby on a mixed diet in this case shows:

  1. bowel movement per day - 30-40 grams;
  2. yellow-brown tint;
  3. putrid odor;
  4. pH level - 6.8 - 7.5;
  5. there is no mucus;
  6. blood is not detected;
  7. soluble protein is not detected;
  8. stercobilin is present;
  9. there is bilirubin;
  10. no ammonia;
  11. detritus may be;
  12. little or no muscle fibers;
  13. there are no connecting fibers;
  14. no starch;
  15. no digestible vegetable fiber is detected;
  16. neutral fat - little;
  17. fatty acids - little;
  18. soap - a little;
  19. leukocytes. Single.

A general analysis of feces in young children under one year old is presented as a table with data. It is provided to the pediatrician for examination. Do not worry if the coprogram and its norm do not match the above data. An infant does not yet have strong immunity.

Coprogram in children after a year

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The child's stool is completely dependent on his nutrition. After a year, food becomes varied, there is a partial rejection of dairy products. It is for this reason that defecation takes on a formalized appearance and color, a corresponding smell appears.

The stool coprogram changes and its decoding in older children should show:

  • bowel movement. No more than 250 grams per day. Decorated;
  • light brown tint;
  • natural fecal odor;
  • pH level - 7 - 7.5;
  • mucus in the feces should be absent;
  • blood is not detected;
  • no soluble protein detected;
  • the daily production of stercobilin corresponds to an amount from 75 to 350 grams;
  • detritus in any quantity;
  • no muscle fibers;
  • connective fibers are not visualized;
  • no starch;
  • digestible vegetable fiber is not detected;
  • there is no neutral fat;
  • fatty acids are not detected;
  • soap. Very little;
  • leukocytes no more than 10 or single indicators.

The examination at this age is carried out less frequently than the coprogram in a newborn baby. The work of the digestive system in a child after the first year of life is fully formed and does not need constant monitoring.

Fecal occult blood test

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In case of detection of a discharge with blood in the feces in a child or the doctor has suspicions of internal bleeding, small foci of lesions and a possible violation of the integrity of the tissue of the digestive system, it is necessary to urgently undergo an appropriate examination.

A special laboratory analysis of feces for "latent" blood in children is carried out:

  • immunochemical. A method using antibodies that detect not only blood cells, but can also determine the cause of their occurrence;
  • Gregersen reaction. Provides for the application of a small amount of reagent to the feces. A change in the color of bowel movements indicates the presence of "hidden" blood.

If the fecal occult blood test is positive, then a diagnosis of possible diseases is required:

  1. ulcerative lesions of the stomach, duodenum;
  2. Mallory-Weiss syndrome;
  3. varicose veins in the esophagus;
  4. liver dysfunction;
  5. periodontal disease;
  6. stomatitis;
  7. neoplasms, tumors;
  8. bleeding from the nose;
  9. intestinal obstruction;
  10. food allergy;
  11. polyps in the intestine;
  12. helminthiasis;
  13. dysentery;
  14. colitis;
  15. dysbiosis.

The usual macro and microscopic examination of defecation in this case is not informative. Hemoglobin, which breaks down, is synthesized into iron sulfate. The stool becomes dark in color, without traces of blood.

Feces for dysbiosis: decoding

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Very often in young children, especially newborns, there is loose stools, mucus in the stool, periodic flatulence, poor appetite and bad breath. At the first signs of a disorder of the digestive system, an analysis is prescribed for dysbiosis in a child.

The rate of indicators of microorganisms in the intestine:

  1. bifidobacteria - from 109 to 1011. They synthesize vitamins B and K, normalize the absorption of vitamin D by the body. Participate in strengthening the immune system;
  2. lactobacilli - from 106 to 108. Maintain and normalize the level of acidity, perform the protective function of the intestine;
  3. Escherichia - from 106 to 108. Produce proteins, synthesize vitamins K and B;
  4. bacteroids - from 107 to 108;
  5. peptostreptococci - from 103 to 106. Single indicators. Participate in the breakdown of carbohydrates;
  6. enterococci - from 105 to 108. They break down carbohydrates;
  7. saprophytic staphylococci - less than 104;
  8. Clostridia - less than 105. Protein cleavage;
  9. candida - less than 104. Conditionally pathogenic microorganisms.

Analysis of feces for worms and their eggs

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The presence of parasites in the child's body is common. A newborn baby can become infected even in the womb, a child before and after a year, without following the rules of personal hygiene, from animals and peers.

The baby feels weak, loses appetite, complains of abdominal pain, screams or cries. There is vomiting, diarrhea. Experienced parents can see parasites after emptying.

In this case, an analysis of feces in a small child for eggs and worms is prescribed:

  • scraping. Taking a sample in the anal area with a special cotton swab or adhesive tape;
  • diagnostics of CPR. Stool is taken as the basis for the study. A fragment of the parasite's DNA is isolated from the feces. Its type, class, number of individuals in the body are established;
  • scatological. A general analysis of feces is carried out, the decoding of which indicates the presence of helminths, their larvae and eggs.

Carbohydrates in feces

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Milk sugar or lactose is a carbohydrate that in a healthy body must be broken down and digested with lactase. Otherwise, it is not absorbed and contributes to the multiplication of bacteria and the disorder of the intestinal microflora.

To exclude or confirm the disease, an analysis is prescribed for the carbohydrates contained in the intestine:

  • norm - up to 0.3%;
  • permissible deviation - up to 0.5%;
  • the critical indicator is more than 1%.

The diagnosis of lactase deficiency is common in newborns.

The inability of the child to consume breast milk and receive useful substances leads to serious consequences:

  1. developmental delay;
  2. allergic rashes and dermatitis;
  3. frequent loose stools. Observed more than 10 times a day;
  4. constipation;
  5. flatulence;
  6. anemia.

Decoding coprograms in children

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Many parents are interested in what feces should actually be in a healthy child, whether the coprogram and its complete decoding in children can be erroneous.

In some cases, a slight deviation from the norm is permissible, especially when the baby is switching to an adult or mixed diet. Let us consider in more detail what the decoding of the coprogram looks like in infants and babies after the first year of life.

Much or little feces. The amount of discharge is very ambiguous. The food that a newborn baby receives consists of formula and breast milk. Therefore, bowel movements per day should not exceed 50 grams per day.

After the first year, the baby receives a full adult meal. The daily norm for older children reaches 250 grams.

Possible reasons for increased bowel movements:

  • pancreatitis;
  • cholecystitis;
  • disruption of the biliary system.

What the other color of feces says:

  1. dark brown. Indicates obstructive jaundice, a large amount of meat in the diet;
  2. the black. Bleeding of the stomach or intestines, ulcerative foci of the duodenum. Eating dark berries;
  3. green. Typical for fans of salads, green vegetables;
  4. red. Intestinal bleeding;
  5. clayey. Loss of color of defecation can be triggered by hepatitis, neoplasms, liver disease;
  6. light coloured. It is observed in connection with the appearance of ulcerative colitis, pancreatitis, Crohn's disease, and the fermentation process.

Smell. Corresponds to the products that the child consumes. In a newborn, the smell of bowel movements corresponds to fermentation of milk and has a sour tint.

Mixed food in a child provokes a putrid smell. The child's body still does not cope well with the digestion of heavy food. After a year, bowel movements acquire a traditional fecal, but not too pungent odor.

stool pH. The bacteria that form the intestinal microflora affect acidity levels:

  • the baby's coprogram will show a result of no more than 5.8;
  • a baby on artificial feeding has an indicator of up to 6.8;
  • the neutral pH of an adult child reaches 7.5.

Exceptionally, mucus in the feces is allowed in infants up to 6 months of age during breastfeeding. In other cases, intestinal infections, hemorrhoids, polyps, lactase deficiency are possible.

Muscle and connective fibers in the feces should not be reflected. Too many of them indicate dysfunction of the digestive system. Food that is not digested by the baby in the secretions is rare.

Starch should not be found in feces. It is the result of eating grains, vegetables and fruits and is broken down even before entering the intestines. In other cases, it is necessary to check the child for pancreatitis and gastritis.

Fatty acids are observed only in young children. After a year, they are digested, and the remains are excreted from the body naturally. Indicate violations of the biliary tract, diarrhea.

Soaps. They are the result of the digestion of fats. Their absence indicates possible diseases of the liver, gallbladder, pancreatitis.

Leukocytes. Isolated cases are allowed. A leukocyte count of more than 10 indicates an infectious disease or inflammatory process in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, such as amoebic dysentery, colitis, enteritis, pancreatitis, and allergies.

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