Anaerobic Bacteria - Classification Of Anaerobic Bacteria And Infections

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Anaerobic Bacteria - Classification Of Anaerobic Bacteria And Infections
Anaerobic Bacteria - Classification Of Anaerobic Bacteria And Infections

Video: Anaerobic Bacteria - Classification Of Anaerobic Bacteria And Infections

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Last updated 25 January 2018 at 15:59

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Bacteria are present everywhere, their number is huge, the types are different. Anaerobic bacteria are the same types of microorganisms. They can develop and live independently, whether there is oxygen in their nutritional environments or does not exist at all.

Anaerobic bacteria receive energy from substrate phosphorylation. There are aerobes of the facultative type, obligate, or other types of anaerobic bacteria.

Content

  • 1 List of infections caused by anaerobic bacteria
  • 2 Anaerobes - bacteroids
  • 3 Formation of anaerobes
  • 4 Nutrition sphere
  • 5 Reasons for the appearance of infectious diseases
  • 6 Features for obtaining samples

    6.1 Similar articles

List of infections caused by anaerobic bacteria

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Facultative bacteria are found almost everywhere. The reason for their existence is a change from one metabolic pathway to a completely different one. This type includes E. coli, staphylococci, shigella, and others. These are dangerous anaerobic bacteria.

Arranged by classes:

  1. Clostridia are obligate types of aerobic bacteria that can form spores. These are the causative agents of botulism or tetanus.
  2. Non-clostridial anaerobic bacteria. Varieties from the microflora of living organisms. They play an essential role in the formation of various purulent and inflammatory diseases. Non-spore-forming bacteria live in the oral cavity, in the gastrointestinal tract. On the skin, in the genitals of women.
  3. Capneistic anaerobes. They live with an exaggerated accumulation of carbon dioxide.
  4. Aerotolerant bacteria. In the presence of molecular oxygen, this type of microorganism has no respiration. But it does not die either.
  5. Moderately severe types of anaerobes. In an environment with oxygen, they do not die, do not multiply. Bacteria of this species require a nutritional environment with reduced pressure for life.

Anaerobes - bacteroids

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Considered to be the more important aerobic bacteria. Make up 50% of all inflammatory and purulent types. Their causative agents are anaerobic bacteria or bacteroids. These are gram-negative obligate types of bacteria.

Rods with bipolar coloration and sizes from 0.5 to 1.5, in areas of about 15 microns. They can produce enzymes, toxins, and cause virulence. Depend on antibiotic resistance. They can be stable, or just sensitive. All anaerobic microorganisms are very resistant.

Energy production for gram-negative obligate anaerobes is carried out in human tissues. Some of the tissues of organisms have increased resistance to reduced oxygen levels in the nutritional environment.

ATP is adenosine triphosphate, or acid, which appears during the production of energy in the body. There are several variations in the synthesis of this substance. One of them is aerobic, or three variations of anaerobes.

Anaerobic mechanisms for the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate:

  • re-phosphorylation, which occurs between adenosine triphosphate and creatine phosphate;
  • the formation of transphosphorylation of adenosine triphosphate molecules;
  • anaerobic breakdown of blood constituents glucose, glycogen.

Anaerobic formation

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The purpose of microbiologists is the cultivation of anaerobic bacteria. To carry out this requires a specialized microflora, and the concentration of metabolites. It is usually used in studies of a different nature.

There are special methods for the cultivation of anaerobes. Occurs when replacing air with a mixture of gases. It works in thermostats with hermetic sealing. This is how anaerobes grow. Another method is the cultivation of microorganisms with the addition of reducing agents.

Nutrition sphere

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There is a nutritional area with a general view or differential diagnostic. The base - for the Wilson-Blair species, is agar-agar, which has a certain content of glucose, 2-ferric chloride, sodium sulfite among its constituents. Among them there are colonies that are called black.

The Ressel sphere is used to study the biochemical properties of bacteria called salmonella or shigella. This medium can contain both glucose and agar-agar.

Ploskirev's environment is such that it can inhibit the growth of some microorganisms. They make up the multitude. For this reason, it is used for the possibility of differential diagnostic. Dysentery pathogens, typhoid fever, and other pathogenic anaerobes can be successfully developed here.

The main direction of the medium of bismuth-sulfite agars - this method is intended for the isolation of Salmonella. This is done with the ability of Salmonella to produce hydrogen sulfide.

In the body of every living individual, many anaerobes live. They cause various types of infectious diseases in them. Infection with an infection can occur only with weakened immunity or microflora breakdowns. There is a possibility that infections will enter a living organism from the environment. It can be in the fall, in winter. This infection persists during the listed periods. The ailment caused sometimes gives complications.

Infections caused by microorganisms - anaerobic bacteria, are directly related to the flora of the mucous membranes of living individuals. With the habitation of anaerobic sites. Each infection has several pathogens. Their number usually reaches ten. Absolutely specified number of diseases causing anaerobic, cannot be accurately determined.

Absolutely all people of different ages are periodically exposed to anaerobic infections. In small children, the degree of infectious inflammation is much greater than in people of a different age. Anaerobes often cause diseases inside the skull in humans. Abscesses, meningitis, other types of diseases. The spread of anaerobes is carried out with the blood flow.

If a person has a chronic disease, then anaerobes can form abnormalities in the neck or head. For example: abscesses, otitis media or lymphadenitis. The bacteria are dangerous for the gastrointestinal tract, the lungs of patients.

Reasons for the appearance of infectious diseases

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The emergence of human infections is caused by those processes in which energetic anaerobic bacteria enter the body. The development of the disease may be accompanied by an unstable blood supply, the appearance of tissue necrosis. It can be injuries of a different nature, swelling, tumors, vascular disorders. The appearance of infections in the oral cavity, diseases in the lungs, inflammation of the pelvic organs, and other diseases.

The infection can develop in a unique way for each species. Development is influenced by the type of infectious agent, the patient's health. Such infections are difficult to diagnose. The seriousness of diagnosticians is often based on assumptions alone. There is a difference in the characteristics of infections that arise from non-clostridial anaerobes.

The first signs of infection are gas formation, any suppuration, the appearance of thrombophlebitis. Sometimes tumors or neoplasms can be signs. They can be neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, uterine. Accompanied by the formation of anaerobes. During this time, an unpleasant odor may come from the person. But, even if the smell does not exist, this does not mean that there are no anaerobes as pathogens for infection in this organism.

Features for obtaining samples

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The first study for infections caused by anaerobes is an external examination of the general appearance of a person, his skin. Because the presence of skin diseases in humans is a complication. They indicate that the presence of gases in the infected tissues is about the vital activity of bacteria.

In laboratory studies, determining a refined diagnosis, it is necessary to correctly obtain a sample of infected matter. Often, specialized equipment is used. Straight needle aspiration is considered to be the best sampling method.

Types of samples that do not correspond to the possibility of continuing analyzes:

  • sputum acquired by self-excretion;
  • bronchoscopy tests;
  • types of smears from the fornix of the vagina;
  • urine from free urination;
  • types of feces.

Samples are subject to research:

  1. blood;
  2. pleural fluid;
  3. transtracheal aspirates;
  4. pus taken from abscesses
  5. back brain fluids;
  6. punctates of the lungs.

It must be designed for anaerobic conditions. Because the interaction of samples with atmospheric oxygen can cause complete death of bacteria. Liquid species of samples are transferred in test tubes, sometimes directly in syringes.

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