Table of contents:
- Reasons for education
- Mechanism of action
- Laboratory diagnostics
- Types of laboratory diagnostics
Last updated 24 January 2018 at 17:14
Reading time: 6 minutes
A specific microorganism, a spiral bacterium, penetrating into a person, activates an immune defense reaction with the production of a specific antibody to Helicobacter pylori.
This protective reaction is called the humoral immune response, during the active work of which protein compounds are synthesized, which are determined in the blood plasma as antibodies Igg to Helicobacter pylori.
- 1 Reasons for education
- 2 Structure
- 3 Mechanism of action
- 4 Types
- 5 Diagnostic value
- 6 Laboratory diagnostics
7 Types of laboratory diagnostics
7.1 Similar articles
Reasons for education
The penetration of any pathogenic microorganism, such as a bacteria or a virus, causes a person's immune defense response. There is the inclusion of defense mechanisms aimed at combating penetrated pathogenic agents. The harmful organism is destroyed, the spread, reproduction, growth is blocked, and most importantly, the influence of the pathogen and waste products is eliminated.
The response will manifest itself in the form of obvious symptoms of the disease or the infection will proceed latently, depending on a number of factors: the number of pathogenic objects, the degree of their virulence, physical health, the influence of external factors, and most importantly, this is the state of the body's defenses. One of these defense mechanisms used by humans is extracellular humoral immunity.
Produced specifically for certain organisms or other penetrated pathogens. They have structural features and the type of receptors on their surface, allowing them to interact only with a specific infectious agent.
This interaction is like a lock with a key or like a hand and a glove. Upon contact or binding of antibodies with antigens, the active life of the latter is disrupted, their immobilization occurs, their virulent effect on target cells is eliminated, and the pathogenic effect on the body is eliminated.
When a person is infected with Helicobacter pylori, the humoral response of the body is turned on, the mechanism of synthesis of such compounds as immunoglobulin is triggered. The presence in the blood of a high concentration of specific biological compounds may indicate pathological processes in the human body and active protective reactions.
Antibodies are protein molecules synthesized by the immune system that circulate in the blood plasma. Formed as a response to the introduction of viruses, microorganisms, toxins of protein origin, and other pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic factors, recognized as foreign.
These are rather massive glycoproteins with a complex structure. Formed by two paired heavy amino acid chains and two similar light chains.
The heavy chains are supplied with oligosaccharides. They are divided into two bonding areas and one crystallizing area. Depending on the purpose and class, they are represented by a monomeric structure - IgG or a multidimensional structure - IgA, IgM.
Mechanism of action
The interaction of antibodies occurs by their active sites - receptors with pathogenic or conditionally pathogenic objects, such as viruses, infectious agents. As a result of the interaction, the reproduction is stopped or the toxins produced are neutralized.
This is a certain class of glycoproteins located on the biological surface of B-lymphocytes in the form of membrane receptors that actively circulate in the blood plasma. They are one of the main factors of humoral resistance. Can be used by the human immune system to identify and obtain information about foreign agents.
The second of their functions is a trigger or trigger, leading to the inclusion of mechanisms of a certain type of humoral response. They make the choice to use the most effective anti-implementation mechanism.
IgM - exceeding the norm above a certain value informs about the presence of an infectious infection at an early stage. At this stage, the pathogenic agent enters the human stomach and only begins its activity. In the absence of other types of specific molecules, it indicates the absence of infection or an atypical course.
IgG - an increase in its content above the norm informs about the active course of the pathological process and an adequate immune response. It can talk about the initial period after the patient's body recovers, when the level of immunoglobulins has not yet returned to normal.
IgA - exceeding the established norm of the amount of this class of compounds indicates an active phase of the course of the disease. It also shows the maximum inclusion of countermeasures. At the normative level of other compounds and this complex, it may indicate an uninfected organism.
Also, if its concentration does not exceed the norm, this may indicate an early stage of infection. Such a laboratory picture can show the effectiveness of the patient being treated with antibacterial drugs that partially destroy microorganisms.
The presence or absence of characteristic globulins for Helicobacter pylori, their normal or increased level in the blood plasma may not always indicate infection.
Immunoglobulins are sometimes not detected at the very onset of the disease, when the reaction is delayed or slowly developing. Also, their increased levels can be detected after recovery, when a certain time must pass for them to decrease.
When a clinical disease appears as a result of exposure to this pathogen, regular laboratory tests are required to assess changes in the dynamics of specific protein compounds. It is also necessary to control the change in their number over time, which will indicate the stages of the course of the infectious process and the effectiveness of therapy.
One of the components of this complex, together with other types of diagnostics and clinics, is the dynamics of the level of these indicators in the blood, their appearance and disappearance. The time intervals for determining the concentration of immunoglobulins to Helicobacter pylori are of particular importance.
Types of laboratory diagnostics
One of the modern methods of detecting antibodies to infection with Helicobacter pylori is the enzyme immunoassay - ifa. With this diagnostic method, all classes of specific molecules can be determined for complete clinical analysis.
ELISA is an immunological method for the quantitative and qualitative detection of biological molecular formations, viruses.
It is based on a certain reaction called antigen - antibody. As a result of the reaction stages, a single complex is formed, which, with the help of a certain enzyme, which is a so-called label, gives a positive or negative signal.
This type of determination of the presence of specific immunoglobulins is one of the most dynamically developing and promising ones. This is due to the unique determination of the resulting complex, since globulins bind only to certain types of antigens and in no other way.
Added to this is the tremendous detection sensitivity of the labeled enzyme.
This diagnostic method is highly resistant to the components used. A simple registration system, the possibility of using a number of additional components and stages of the reaction, its cheapness contributed to its widespread use in diagnostics for the determination of specific molecules to a spiral-shaped bacteria.
Determination of the specific class of immunoglobulins A to the pathogen is carried out by laboratory diagnostics of the patient's serum plasma. In this case, IgA is determined in dynamics for a certain time interval, its dynamics is estimated.
The reference values for the concentration of class A compounds range from 0 to 13.5 IU / ml. If the results of the analysis meet these limits, then this informs about the early period of infection, which occurs from the moment of the onset of the disease within two or three weeks. It can talk about the successful recovery of the patient and the destruction of the bacteria. It can also mean the absence of the disease, as such.
If the upper figure of the reference value is exceeded, in the presence of other confirmations of clinical diagnostic methods and symptoms, it indicates infection with Helicobacter pylori. During this period, there is an intensive course of the disease, a high activity of the immune response.
Determination of the specific class of globulin G to Helicobacter pylori is also carried out by laboratory diagnosis of the patient. In this case, the concentration to helicobacter pylori igg is determined within a certain time interval, and its temporal dynamics is estimated. The results of the analysis are obtained in quantitative terms, in the form of a certain concentration, which speaks of the course of the pathological process.
The increase in Igg after infection is slower than that of class A globulins. After the patient is cured after infection with Helicobacter pylori, a high level of Igg can remain for some time and tends to decrease over time. Exceeding the upper level of the reference value unambiguously informs about the infection of the patient's body.