Table of contents:
- Chlamydia prevalence
- Infection methods
- Types of chlamydial infections
- Chlamydia symptoms in men
- Chlamydia symptoms in women
- Chlamydia prevention
Video: Chlamydia (Chlamydial Infection) - Causes, Signs And Symptoms, Treatment
Last updated 22 January 2018 at 10:32 pm
Reading time: 6 minutes
Chlamydia is the most common infectious pathology.
For a long time, scientists did not pay due attention to chlamydia, due to the lack of a heavy history. Meanwhile, along with the urinary tract, its traditional target, chlamydia can immediately affect the vessels, articular tissues, heart, teeth, ears and eyes.
They have access to a secretive existence without clashes with immunity. An aggressive environment such as antibiotics, illness, overheating and hypothermia usually hibernates them. The activation of the division of chlamydia is noticeable only against the background of problems with immunity.
- 1 Chlamydia
- 2 Prevalence of chlamydia
- 3 Methods of infection
- 4 Pathogenesis
- 5 Types of chlamydial infections
- 6 Symptoms of chlamydia in men
- 7 Symptoms of chlamydia in women
- 8 Treatment
- 9 Efficiency
- 10 Diagnostics
11 Prevention of chlamydia
11.1 Similar articles
Now it is customary to attribute chlamydia to the smallest bacteria, in the same group with rickettsia, which are also characterized by intracellular parasitism.
However, chlamydia earned a separate shelf due to its distinctive developmental dynamics.
The multiplication process of chlamydia and viruses takes place in two segments. Starting with the fixation of a simple body on the corresponding receptors of the cells, and ending with adsorption by the receptors of the host cell.
Following the contact of pathogens with cells, a cascade of reactions starts, with the synthesis of genetic material. So the infection is masked by the latent phase of the infection (2-4 hours). In this latent period, it is impossible to identify either the virus or the chlamydia. The success of this event determines the yield of genetic material
At the end of the latent period, the time comes when chlamydia is actively maturing. This period starts from an exponential segment, with a continuous increase in infectivity.
Chlamydiae, like viruses, have one more maneuver in reserve - leaving the cell without deforming it, which is an important factor for moderate infection.
According to statistics, up to hundreds of millions of people are infected every year around the world. Chlamydial infection is found in almost every second man of fertile age and a third of women.
The widespread prevalence of chlamydia is based on mildness. In half of the pathologies, chlamydia in women is asymptomatic.
Why traditionally partners do not know that one of them has this common disease. And chlamydia reaches a very deplorable, alas, and sometimes irreparable damage to health: pyelonephritis, cystitis, prostatitis, erectile dysfunction, infertility, gynecological pathologies of the uterus and appendages.
Chlamydia usually follows through sexual contact. Women are more susceptible to chlamydia. The main routes of infection are through sexual intercourse of the vagina, anus and mouth. Rare sources do not recognize household contamination. Experts have proven that chlamydia is viable for up to two days on household items at normal room temperature.
Out-of-sex transmission does not show epidemiological value, although it is also desirable to take it into account. A significant frequency of infection with chlamydia in infants (every second) in the infected birth canal, as well as inside the womb, was clearly revealed.
Chlamydia is also carried by animals. The most destructive (Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum) enter the organs after playing with infected objects. Chlamydia trachomatis does not lag behind with Chlamydia pneumoniae, but is already transferred from humans.
The incubation period for chlamydia lasts for several weeks.
Chlamydia in humans can lead to arthritis, conjunctivitis, cardiovascular disease, pneumonia. Disease urogenital chlamydia adds vulnerability to HIV, syphilis.
Up to 80% of cases of chlamydia are parallel to other sexually transmitted infections, for example, syphilis, gonorrhea. This alliance not only multiplies the pathogenicity of any microbe, but also complicates the treatment of chlamydia.
Types of chlamydial infections
The organ affected by chlamydia determines the type of pathology, chlamydia is divided into several types.
Infected birds and mammals are infected. Typical marks of pathology are:
fever, general intoxication, affected lungs with the onset of inflammation, brain damage with meningitis, spleno- and hepatomegaly (enlarged spleen and liver).
Chlamydia of the bronchopulmonary system
Pulmonary chlamydia is characterized by acute obstructive bronchitis or asthma. Patients suffer from dry cough, shortness of breath, hissing, temporary choking.
Chlamydial infection of the conjunctiva and the cornea of the eyes leading to blindness.
Lymphogranulomatous venereal disease
Damage to the urogenital region and lymph nodes in the groin. Up to ulcers of the perineum and mucous membranes, with their further scarring.
Signs of pathology are typical for conjunctivitis, arthritis and urethritis.
Urogenital chlamydia in acute and chronic course.
Patients learn what urogenital chlamydia is by frequent and painful urination, vitreous discharge of the urethra, and sometimes by blood from urination.
Chlamydia of the genitourinary system occurs more often than other types. The dynamics can be both acute and chronic. The chronic form is usually preceded by a latent one, lasting from a week to 20 days. The chronic form is sometimes not detected at all, to obvious complications.
Chlamydia symptoms in men
In men, chlamydia symptoms either do not determine, or can be detected by mild inflammation of the urethra. When urinating, there is a burning sensation, itching, morning discharge of a drop is visible. Painful sensations of the scrotum, lower back, testicles.
Intoxication raises the temperature to 37 °, the urine becomes cloudy, and bloody discharge is noticeable. Any of these signals is followed by an immediate visit to the doctor.
Chlamydia symptoms in women
It is not always easy to find chlamydia in women; chlamydia may not show symptoms. In other cases, the following changes are indicative: mucous vaginal discharge, mild pain in the small pelvis, burning, itching, intermenstrual bleeding. But they are all indirect.
After a dozen days, chlamydia ceases to bother at all without treatment, or it can occasionally remind of itself with even more vague hints. In six out of a dozen infections, chlamydia is asymptomatic.
Extragenital symptoms of chlamydia disease are expressed by recurrent diseases of the upper respiratory system: repeated colds with a long cough, proctitis with acidic discharge from the intestine, against the background of anorectal pain.
The infection shows unusual symptoms of chlamydia, which makes the diagnosis work poorly in acute form and becomes chronic in 90% of cases.
The treatment of a real infection is no longer limited to the use of a complex of antibiotics, but also includes modern drugs that are elusive for the cell membrane. Turning to immunomodulators helps the body to participate in healing in a natural way.
The cure for chlamydia is now mainly performed physiotherapy: quantum treatment, ultrasound, magnetic, infrared, alternating currents, electrophoresis, iontophoresis of drugs.
The effectiveness of the treatment can be boasted if you take into account all the subtleties. Doses of antibiotics are carefully adjusted so as not to form resistant chlamydia subtherapeutically.
With the second identification of the present pathogen, an additional course for chlamydia is carried out. A negative test for chlamydia is checked after a month, women are checked before and after menstruation. Chlamydia is usually considered defeated in the absence of a pathological picture of the disease, in an altered morphology of the genitals, with a stable rate of leukocyte reaction.
If you immediately take the disease under control, then therapy is usually not empty and ends with a full recovery. The chronic form, along with relapses, requires complex intervention, since chlamydia will not slow down to develop "immunity" to the old treatment, and new time and material expenses will be required for an adequate method of treatment.
Chlamydiae are intracellular parasites, which makes traditional recognition tests of little use. Together with the smear, they also turn to non-invasive tests - blood, urine and semen tests.
A general smear should be taken for men in the urethra, for women in the cervix, vagina and urethra immediately.
With immunofluorescence, the sample is stained and analyzed using a fluorescent microscope, in which the pathogen will emit a glow.
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay refers to antibodies in the blood that appear as an infection response.
The culture method simultaneously reveals a weakness to antibiotics. This is currently the most cumbersome and expensive study. But with an unmistakable result and the ability to determine the most effective antibiotic.
Prevention of chlamydia is no different from the prevention of other genital infections.
Putting order in sexual behavior traditionally comes first. Choice of choice of a partner, taboos on casual relationships, and condom habit.
"Traditional medicine" in protecting against these diseases cannot boast of reliability, and would rather do harm. So when douching, most of the microflora is washed out, along with the defenders of the mucous membrane from pathogens. Therefore, in second place are measures to maintain immunity.