Table of contents:
- Delivery rules
- Collection procedure
- Which capacity is right?
- Directions for examination
- Urine rates
- What are the methods of collecting information?
Video: Urinalysis - How To Pass A General Urinalysis Correctly?
Last updated 30 January 2018 at 00:04
Reading time: 5 min
In ancient times, healers knew that urine speaks volumes. The state of the whole organism as a whole depends on its quality. Of course, at that time there were no special laboratories for making an accurate diagnosis, but still people knew that the material could provide information about human health.
With the release of the liquid, toxins, harmful elements, hormones, toxins and metabolic products are also removed. Therefore, a general urine test carries a lot of information. It shows the presence or absence of pathological processes, infections, inflammation in the body. Does the person have kidney disease, bladder disease, pyelonephritis, prostate ailments and much more.
A referral is issued for examination during a routine examination once a year and if a disease is suspected. Doctors do not have enough time to explain to each patient how to take a urine test, so they rely on people's knowledge.
A lot depends on how the patient is prepared. Often, if the rules are not followed, the research will show false information. So how to pass urine correctly, we will consider later in the article.
- 1 Terms of delivery
- 2 Collection procedure
- 3 Which container is right?
- 4 Directions for examination
- 5 Norms of urine
6 What are the methods of collecting information?
6.1 Similar articles
Before taking urine, you need to prepare in advance. This will not be difficult. It's no secret that absolutely everything affects the result. Food, drinks, stress, physical fatigue.
About 12 hours before the event, you should not drink alcoholic beverages, coffee. It is necessary to exclude smoked dishes, pickles and pickled snacks, because there will be phosphates present. Fruits and vegetables with bright colors are also excluded. They change the color of the liquid.
You should stop taking vitamin complexes and supplements, suspend the use of diuretics. If you are taking any medications, notify the specialist in advance to eliminate data corruption.
In this situation, you just need to postpone the trip to the hospital. After cystoscopic therapy, you need to wait at least 6-8 days. Do not drink mineral water as it changes the acidity of the liquid. Excessive exercise also increases protein levels.
In order to properly pass a urine test, you must first thoroughly wash your private parts, but without using chemicals. Otherwise, the mucus on the genitals will get into the biomaterial and give an unreliable diagnosis.
In some cases, girls will need a tampon to prevent this. Delivery should be carried out in the morning. It is not recommended to use the first portion, as it may contain components of inflammation and bacteria in the urinary system. The middle part of the collection is good for analyzes.
First empty a small part of it into the toilet, then substitute the container without stopping emptying. Try not to touch it with your body, so that bacterial cells and epithelium do not get into the container. Research requires no more than 60-120 mil liters. Remove the container before urinating is over.
Which capacity is right?
It is important to use a clean, uncontaminated container. If you use dishes at home, they must be sterilized. Avoid the ingress of detergent gels and powders. A plastic tank or dark glass is better.
For this business, it is better to buy a disposable container, sold in every pharmacy. It doesn't cost a lot of money, it doesn't need to be disinfected. After everything is done, the material is stored for no more than two hours, at a temperature of 8 degrees in a place from heat sources. Warm storage is prohibited.
Directions for examination
We examined a general urine test, how to take it correctly. Further, what is the indication for going to the doctor:
- stones, inflammation of the urethra;
- pyelonephritis, nephritis;
- metabolic problems;
- hormonal disorders;
- inflammation of the genitals;
- chronic infections;
- pathology of the prostate gland;
- streptococcal infection;
What a good indicator says. First, the color of the biomaterial should be transparent, light yellow. Dark with mucus impurities indicates infection, and mucus is the presence of leukocytes. Brown about liver disease, flakes are the reason for the presence of cystitis.
An orange or red tint indicates hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, cholestasis. Slightly reddish, it means pyelonephritis, inflammation of the kidneys, or the release of stones, sand. But it can indicate more serious ailments of tuberculosis, kidney cancer.
Black is a sign of alkaptonuria. Gray or white indicates pus or inflammation. After vitamin complexes, preparations, the color will turn bright yellow.
There should also be no foam, even when shaken. A high level of froth is characteristic of a high protein content or jaundice. It is also noted with severe shocks, impaired brain function and concussion. More about complications with the heart, metabolism and the severe stage of diabetes mellitus.
Ph is acidic in acidosis, and alkaline in alkalosis. Sugar should not be present. An excess of it indicates blood sugar. Ketone bodies are about impaired metabolism, loading of fats, carbohydrates. No bilirubin. Erythrocytes within 3 in girls and 1 in men.
Leukocytes within 6 in women, 0 or 3 in men. Epithelium up to 10 per field of view. Squamous epithelium will be visible if the rules for general urine analysis are violated. There should be no cylinders, salts and bacteria.
When examined under a microscope, the following are found:
- hyaline cylinders;
- granular and wax cylinders;
The first signify abnormalities with the kidneys, heart organs, hyperthermia. In rare situations, they are seen after prolonged physical activity, high blood pressure, and taking diuretics. Granular confirm pyelonephritis, viral nature of infections, feverish conditions, intoxication with lead elements.
Wax types show metabolic changes in renal tissues, renal dysfunction in the chronic phase. In the last stage, they are unable to excrete urine normally.
There should be no fungus. If there is one, then it means there is thrush on the intimate organs, in the body. Fungal infection often occurs after prolonged use of antibiotics. After them, this is a sign of weakened immunity.
Even if the biomaterial data is not in order for some reason, the doctor will never make a diagnosis referring to only one result. Assign blood referrals and other examinations.
What are the methods of collecting information?
The Initial Complaints Specialist provides guidance on the OAM using the Nechiporenko Method. To get the correct result, you need to stop taking medications, vitamins and alcohol in a week. Wash off simply with water without detergents. Collect material in a container.
Sterility indications. If the patient has diseases with the urinary system, he often goes to the toilet, there are excruciating pains of the lumbar nature. Complete rest is necessary in 3 hours. You need to take the morning dose.
Three-glass dose. After the hike, you need to make 3 glasses of urine as a result of one urination. This method is needed if there are doubts about the Nechiporenko method. It is he who makes it possible to determine in which department the violations occurred.
A good technique for the male sex, for recognizing prostate adenoma, hematuria, frequent urge to empty, especially at night. Only portions are required in the morning and do not urinate for at least 3 hours.
If you have been drinking alcohol in the next few days, refuse the examination, because the figures will be overstated. Glucose will appear, lactate will increase.
During menstruation, in urgent need, you need to thoroughly rinse the organs, dry them and insert a tampon so that the blood does not get into the reservoir.