Toxoplasmosis - Symptoms And Signs Of Toxoplasmosis In Humans

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Toxoplasmosis - Symptoms And Signs Of Toxoplasmosis In Humans
Toxoplasmosis - Symptoms And Signs Of Toxoplasmosis In Humans

Video: Toxoplasmosis - Symptoms And Signs Of Toxoplasmosis In Humans

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Video: Toxoplasmosis | Acquired vs Congenital | Signs, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment 2023, February
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Last updated 21 June 2017 at 11:38

Reading time: 6 minutes

Toxoplasmosis is a disease provoked by the Toxoplasma parasite that enters the human body. It gets there in different ways: contact with animals, insect bites, poor heat treatment of meat, insufficiently thorough washing of vegetables and fruits, etc.

Once in the intestines, cysts spread through the internal organs through the blood, settling on the tissues. The effect of the parasite on the tissues of internal organs is expressed in the consequences that allow diagnosing the disease and starting therapy.

Content

  • 1 Causative agent of the disease
  • 2 Symptoms
  • 3 Diagnostics
  • 4 Treatment
  • 5 How does it affect organs
  • 6 Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy
  • 7 Prevention
  • 8 Summing up

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Causative agent of the disease

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Toxoplasmosis and its symptoms in humans is an important topic, since complications are serious, and in some forms are fatal. The simplest parasite Toxoplasma provokes the disease toxoplasmosis. The worm is microscopic in size, it is impossible to see it with the naked eye. However, under the microscope, the cyst resembles a slice of light blue or green orange.

The microorganism multiplies in the body of animals. With the feces, eggs enter the soil, which for some time are in a state of survival. Since plants that are consumed by people for food grow from the soil, a certain number of larvae remain on them.

In the human body, cysts can live for years, embedded in the tissue of internal organs. They parasitize by mechanical action on tissues, causing inflammatory processes, absorbing useful substances, instead releasing toxic ones, leading to an allergic reaction. Despite the fact that the parasite is present in the body, there are times when it makes no sense to treat it, since the balance of power is such that Toxoplasma does absolutely no harm.

Symptoms

In science, it is divided into innate and acquired. The mother infects the child first, the second finds the victim in the ways outlined above. Congenital is the most dangerous, as it affects the immature fetus, leading, in couple, to terrible complications, or even to the death of the child. The acquired one proceeds in a chronic form, sometimes without making itself felt at all. However, complications are possible in many internal organs. Therefore, it is important to have periodic blood tests.

In most cases, the disease exists in a chronic form, not manifesting itself strongly, and sometimes it does not make itself felt at all, being in a latent form. However, there are outbreaks of the disease, usually with a decrease in immunity. The symptoms of toxoplasmosis in humans can manifest themselves in different ways, so it is important to take a history in each case. The following are the most common symptoms of infection.

Most of the symptoms are as follows:

  • an increase in body temperature, sometimes chills (a common sign of inflammation);
  • irritability, a feeling of constant fatigue and apathy, as a result of the parasite's consumption of nutrients necessary for the body;
  • migraines, indicating damage to the digestive tract;
  • lymph nodes, spleen, sometimes liver expand;
  • pain in the joints, observed with damage to the central nervous system and ODA;
  • change in heart rate, low blood pressure, indicating the movement of the disease into the cardiovascular system;
  • possible loss of appetite, dry mouth - these are signs of gastrointestinal tract damage;
  • a decrease in the level of vision, expressed in myopia;

Diagnostics

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Toxoplasmosis, namely its symptoms and the treatment that will be prescribed, are directly related, since the disease can manifest itself in different ways, affecting different organs. Therapy takes place with drugs.

Appointments may vary due to different forms of the course of the disease and its affected area. Different answers are given to the question "how to treat an illness" in each individual case. However, several positions are used more or less frequently.

The acute option is treated with the following drugs:

  • fansidar and delagil;
  • antibiotics from the tetracyclines group;
  • sulfa drugs;
  • vitamins, antihistamines such as tavegil or suprastin;
  • immunomodulatory therapy by intradermal administration of toxoplasmin;
  • "Biseptol" or "Rovamycin" courses prescribed by a doctor;
  • hormonal "Dekaris", "Taktivin" and immunotropics;
  • strengthening the intestinal microflora "Flogenzym" or "Wobenzim";

All of the above are used to treat toxoplasmosis. With successful treatment of the acquired form, the disease recedes for life, immunity is formed. This course of therapy is most favorable. However, an advanced disease can turn into HIV, encephalitis, cerebral edema, optic atrophy, endocarditis, or pneumonia.

Thus, timely diagnosis can lead to positive results. When symptoms appear, you must consult a therapist, get tested. Such preventive measures reduce the risk of complications.

The congenital variant is a much more dangerous phenomenon than the acquired one. Intrauterine damage to the fetus can lead to its death. There are frequent cases of the birth of a child with defects in different areas of the body. Possible side effects of congenital ailment include weakness, low muscle tone, CNS pathologies, and a red rash on the body. Possibly congenital squint or blindness.

How does it affect the organs

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The disease is often manifested not by general symptoms associated with malaise or fever, but by damage to the tissues of internal organs and blood vessels. Due to the variety of manifestations, the disease is often confused with others, so it is extremely important to draw up a clear anamnesis in each case.

With damage to the heart and blood vessels, pain in the region of the heart, instability of the rhythm of the heart muscle, constantly varying level of blood pressure can be observed. If the parasite has settled in the intestines, affecting the gastrointestinal tract, the symptoms are usually the following: frequent appetite changes, dry mouth, or bloating. If the nervous system and the musculoskeletal system are affected, then pain occurs in the muscles of the legs, back, arms and neck.

Only a professional specialist can draw up a correct history and localize the infection, so you should not use self-medication and traditional medicine. This may not accomplish anything, or even make the situation worse.

Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy

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In order for a child to be born healthy, it is necessary to seriously approach the pregnancy process, namely to protect the expectant mother from all kinds of infections. If the mother has this ailment at the time of the birth of the child, then there is a great risk that the child will have a number of pathologies.

A pregnant woman should have regular blood tests and avoid contact with pets, especially cats, as they are the most common carrier of cysts.

If the disease is detected in the first three months of pregnancy, then the tactics of therapy may vary. Observed by a parasitologist and an infectious disease specialist. In the second trimester of pregnancy, it is possible to prescribe treatment for women who are at risk according to test results. If an acute form is found in the early stages of pregnancy, up to three months in particular, abortion is possible.

Prevention

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To avoid both infection and complications, regular medical examination, blood donation for the presence of toxoplasma antibodies helps. This is of great importance for women about to become pregnant. Since people who have received a congenital ailment, there is a large number of pathologies, coupled with a general decrease in immunity and a tendency to complications.

General measures to prevent the disease are as follows:

  • high-quality heat treatment of meat, which must be boiled or roasted well;
  • thorough washing of plant products: herbs, berries, fruits, vegetables;
  • compliance with personal hygiene rules, especially after contact with animals, even pets;
  • extermination of indoor insects, in particular flies and cockroaches, which are vectors of infection;

Folk remedies with this disease are ineffective, it is better to immediately contact a professional. Correct diagnosis will lead to high-quality and fast therapy and help to avoid complications.

Let's sum up

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Summarizing all of the above, it is worth noting a number of positions. It is caused by a parasite that enters the body through food, insect bites and contact with animals. The intermediate host of the worm is an animal, the final host is a man. The disease affects the immune system, there are complications in the form of damage to internal organs.

If symptoms appear, you should immediately contact a therapist. Treatment tactics differ in each case. Treatment takes place mainly through drugs, intravenously or in pill form. After healing, immunity is formed, contributing to absolute immunity to the parasite. Prevention measures are related to hygiene, careful handling of food and cleaning of premises.

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