Blood Test - Explanation Of A Detailed Blood Test

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Blood Test - Explanation Of A Detailed Blood Test
Blood Test - Explanation Of A Detailed Blood Test

Video: Blood Test - Explanation Of A Detailed Blood Test

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Video: Lab Results, Values, and Interpretation (CBC, BMP, CMP, LFT) 2023, February
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Last updated 24 January 2018 at 15:40

Reading time: 5 min

A complete blood count (abbreviated as CBC) is a routine test that any clinical laboratory does. This detailed blood test is taken by everyone when undergoing medical examination or for making an accurate diagnosis.

Nowadays, it is possible, without a doctor's referral, on your own initiative, to contact special laboratories and find out the indicators of a detailed analysis of your blood. An extended list of blood parameters is a general clinical one, since it is required when making many diagnoses.

The study establishes the actual level of all studied indicators in relation to the norm.

Content

  • 1 Values ​​of indicators and norms
  • 2 Hemoglobin (HGB, Hb)
  • 3 Erythrocytes
  • 4 Leukocytes
  • 5 Lymphocytes
  • 6 Platelets
  • 7 Granulocytes
  • 8 Hematocrit
  • 9 Blood color index
  • 10 ESR

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Indicator values ​​and norms

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A detailed blood test, its decoding are widely used in medical practice, the study makes it possible to diagnose and assess the state of health both in general and in individual organs. All indicators have their own norm.

Therefore, knowing what each of the indicators means, any person can independently understand, without the help of a doctor, what a clinical analysis is, what is wrong in the composition of his blood, but an expanded one - will make it clear whether there is a need to consult a doctor.

Hemoglobin (HGB, Hb)

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This type of protein is contained in erythrocytes. It delivers oxygen to cells, contains iron, which is necessary for the proper functioning of the human body. When the hemoglobin index is low, it means oxygen deficiency of tissues, a person becomes anemic.

An increased hemoglobin count is also a painful condition, it speaks of an excessive number of red blood cells and dehydration of the body. The viscosity of the blood increases, which leads to the formation of blood clots - thrombi.

Erythrocytes

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Latin - RBC. Their quantity affects the quality of oxygen supply to the body. They carry out the function of removing carbon dioxide from the cells, which is then released from the body by the lungs. An increase in the level entails gluing of blood cells and, as a result, to the formation of blood clots, since the cells clog the vessels.

Leukocytes

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The Latin designation in the research results is WBC. They are involved in protecting against infection and parasite infestation. Their number should be less than erythrocytes.

If it turned out that the number of leukocytes is higher than the standard, this indicates diseases caused by bacteria, and a reduced level is a consequence of treatment with certain medications or indicates a blood pathology.

Lymphocytes

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They are a type of leukocytes and recognize microorganisms foreign to the human body, as well as form an immune response.

A decrease in the number of lymphocytes is called lymphopenia and increases the risk of pneumonia, blood poisoning, and in some cases leads to a heart attack. An increase in lymphocyte count is characteristic of viral infections, tuberculosis, smallpox, rubella and scarlet fever.

Platelets

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In Latin - PLT.

Platelets are plates that are involved in the formation of blood clots and prevent significant blood loss for the body during vascular injury. Thrombocytes that are elevated relative to the norm occur in various blood pathologies, after surgical operations, as a result of spleen amputation.

Decrease occurs with genetic blood pathologies; in case of malfunction of the bone marrow, which performs the function of producing blood cells, this is anemia; with the destruction of platelets due to impaired immunity; a decrease in platelets is accompanied by liver cancer and some other diseases.

Granulocytes

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Latin designation - GRA, GRAN. A granulocyte is a white blood cell in a granule. The function of granulocytes is to fight a variety of infections, allergies and inflammations. It is measured in two versions: in GRA #, and as a percentage of leukocytes - GRA%.

Usually, the granulocyte count exceeds the norm if there is an inflammatory process in any organ. And a parameter of granulocytes reduced relative to the norm indicates anemia - a violation of the function of the bone marrow, which is responsible for the production of blood cells.

The level of granulocytes also decreases due to treatment with a number of medications, with pathologies of connective tissues - lupus, and other diseases.

Hematocrit

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Designation - НСТ. The parameter shows the number of erythrocytes, calculus - in percentage. For example, a reading of 38% indicates that 38% of the blood volume is made up of red blood cells.

An increase in volume occurs with an increased number of red blood cells in the blood, when, for any reason, dehydration occurs (therefore, it is useful to drink plenty of clean water throughout the day). A lowered hematocrit indicates anemia, which happens when the amount of the liquid part of the blood increases.

Blood color index

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It is sometimes referred to as ESR on medical forms. This parameter indicates the rate at which the erythrocytes are deposited. It determines the amount of proteins in the plasma. If there is inflammation in any of the organs, then the ESR will be increased.

Anemia is also accompanied by an increase in ESR; it can also indicate the presence of malignant neoplasms. Decreased ESR is not observed so often and indicates erythrocytosis - an excess of the norm of erythrocytes.

Different laboratories for the study of blood in the forms of analysis results may indicate different norms, this is due to different methods for calculating the parameters. Then the interpretation of the results should be made according to the given norms.

A detailed blood test is the basis for a diagnosis of almost all known diseases. Modern medical equipment allows you to set blood parameters with 100% accuracy, which is important for the appointment of competent and adequate treatment.

The norms of blood elements depend on gender and age. Having on hand the results of a blood test, everyone can check them with the norm, and knowing what the indicators mean and what they depend on, make a decision about which doctor to turn to for timely treatment.

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