Table of contents:
- Giardia infection
- What is giardiasis
- Signs in children
- Diagnosing the disease
- What are antigens
- What are antibodies
- What is immunoglobulin
- Detection of lamblia using immunoglobulins
Video: Antibodies To Giardia - Blood Test For Antibodies To Giardia, General Concepts
Last updated 25 June 2017 at 07:24 PM
Reading time: 4 minutes
Let's try to understand what these are antibodies to lamblia and antibodies to lamblia antigens.
What are parasites
Parasites are living organisms that carry out their nutrition at the expense of another organism, animal or vegetable.
- 1 Giardia infection
- 2 What is giardiasis
- 3 Signs in children
- 4 Diagnosing the disease
- 5 What are antigens
- 6 What are antibodies
- 7 What is immunoglobulin
8 Detection of lamblia using immunoglobulins
8.1 Similar articles
Giardia infection sometimes tends to disappear after about forty days, and may, if there is a weak immune defense, hide for years. When infected with Lamblia intestinalis, a different clinical picture in an adult is possible:
- asymptomatic course of the disease;
- allergic manifestations;
- diarrheal symptoms, which are very difficult if the immune system is very weakened.
What is giardiasis
Giardiasis is a disease that has a very wide range of distribution. The causative agent is Giardia Lamblia (a member of the Protozoe Lamblia intestinalis family).
This infection tends to be transmitted from a human individual, in which giardia is already located, through the fecal-oral route. The main factor due to which infection is carried out is the use of poor-quality purified water. But do not forget that this factor is not the only one.
The incubation period is three to forty-two days. Judging by the age category, the younger generation (children from one to four years old) is more susceptible to infection with parasites such as lamblia.
Signs in children
With the disease, clinical signs in children are more pronounced than in adults. Recent studies of epidemiological indicators provide information that approximately thirty percent of preschool children are infected.
In most cases, giardiasis in this category of people manifests itself as signs that mimic other diseases, which makes it difficult to detect the real cause of the disease.
Fertile and progressing, lamblia poison the body with the toxins they release. This leads to an allergic reaction and has a detrimental effect on the preschooler's immune system. The result can be bronchial asthma, frequent colds and chronic coughs.
Diagnosing the disease
It should be noted that this disease has been studied for a long time, but, nevertheless, it can be very problematic to diagnose it.
The diagnosis is established by finding lamblia trophozoites or cysts. And for this, an analysis of feces or duodenal contents is carried out in order to identify lamblia antigens (that is, an antigen test is performed).
What are antigens
The antigenic substances can be protein compounds, coupled with lipid and polysaccharide compounds (possibly both animal and vegetable origin). They can be represented by viruses, microscopic fungi, bacteria, exotoxins or endotoxins.
They can elicit a low or high degree of immune response. This degree depends on the type of antigen, since the production of antibodies is not the same in response to each modification of the antigen (depending on the specificity, immunogenicity, foreignness, as well as the molecular weight of the antigen). That is, the properties of the antigen.
What are antibodies
Total antibodies are an indicator of an infectious disease ongoing at the moment, or once already occurring. This infection contains giardia microorganisms. These microorganisms very often cause serious diseases of the intestinal tract in humans, both epidemiological and spontaneous.
Antibodies to Giardia are essential to complement existing methods. They belong to immunoglobulin proteins, which are formed as a result of the activity of plasma and lymphoid cells when the antigen enters the body.
What is immunoglobulin
Immunoglobulins are proteins whose structure is quaternary, that is, the structure of their molecules is polypeptide chains. Each class of such a molecule contains four polypeptide chains - two heavy and two light. They are connected by disulfide bridges.
The configuration of all types of immunoglobulins is the structure of light chains. Structures with special characteristics belonging only to a specific class or subclass are heavy chains.
Detection of lamblia using immunoglobulins
The first, one and a half to two weeks after infection, appears igm, after - igg. They are in the blood at almost all stages of the disease. A decrease in their performance occurs only thirty to sixty days after the parasite dies.
This analysis helps to diagnose giardiasis, which detects antibodies to lamblia antigens, total antibodies iga, igm, igg speak of an infectious disease.
But the above methods with the use of antigenic substances cannot be noted as highly effective (only fifty percent), the reason for this is the characteristic discontinuity in cyst secretion, that is, in the method of reproduction of lamblia.
The analysis reveals antibodies to lamblia. This is an additional method for detecting lamblia, which live in human feces.
As clinical studies show, from thirty-nine to forty-two percent of those who have applied with a stomach disease, after the analysis, they receive the following result: almost ninety percent of them have a positive result for giardiasis. That is, their norm of antibodies with the result is "positively" exceeded - more than 1: 100 antibodies.