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Video: Cytoplasmic Membrane - Structure And Function Of The Membrane
Last updated on 27 July 2017 at 04:11 PM
Reading time: 4 minutes
Every human or animal organism consists of billions of cells. The cell is a complex mechanism that performs specific functions. All organs and tissues are composed of subunits.
The system has a cytoplasmic membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, and a number of organelles. The nucleus is delimited with the organelles by an inner film. All together provide life to tissues and also allow metabolism.
The very name of the outer cytoplasmic membrane comes from the Latin membrana, or otherwise the skin. It is the delimiter of space between cellular organisms.
The hypothesis of the structure was put forward already in 1935. In 1959 V. Robertson came to the conclusion that the membrane shells are arranged according to the same principle.
Due to the large amount of accumulated information, the cavity acquired a liquid-mosaic structure model. Now it is considered recognized by everyone. It is the outer cytoplasmic membrane that forms the outer shell of the units.
- 1 Building
- 2.1 Kernel development
- 2.2 Structure
- 3 The digestive cycle
4 Membrane functions
4.1 Similar articles
Any unit has a core, this is its foundation. The cytoplasmic membrane also has an organelle, the structure of which will be described below.
Organelle functions are divided into two main ones:
- closure of the structure in the organelle;
- regulation of the core and liquid contents.
The core consists of pores, each due to the presence of heavy pore combinations. Their volume may indicate the active motor ability of eukaryotes. For example, high activity of immature contains more pore areas. Proteins serve as nuclear juice.
The polymers represent a compound of the matrix and nucleoplasm. The liquid is contained inside the nuclear film, ensures the operability of the genetic content of organisms. The protein element is responsible for the protection and strength of the subunits.
In the nucleolus itself, ribosomal RNAs mature. The RNA genes themselves are located on a specific region of several chromosomes. Small organizers are formed in them. The nucleoli themselves are created inside. Zones in mitotic chromosomes are represented by constrictions, the name is secondary constrictions. In the study of electronics, phases of fibrous and granulation origin are distinguished.
Another designation is fibrillar, derived from proteinaceous and huge polymers - previous versions of r-RNA. Subsequently, they form smaller elements of mature r-RNA. When a fibril matures, it becomes granular in structure or ribonucleoprotein granule.
The chromatin included in the structure has coloring properties. Present in the nucleoplasm of the nucleus, serves as a form of interphase of the vital activity of chromosomes. The composition of chromatin is DNA strands and polymers. Together they make up a complex of nucleoproteins.
Histones perform the functions of organizing space in the structure of a DNA molecule. Additionally, chromosomes include organic substances, enzymes containing polysaccharides, metal particles. Chromatin is divided into:
The first is due to the low density, so it is impossible to read genetic data from such eukaryotes.
The second option has compact properties.
The very constitution of the shell is heterogeneous. Due to constant movements, growths and bulges appear on it. Inside, this is due to the movements of macromolecules and their release into another layer.
The intake of the substances themselves occurs in 2 ways:
Phagocytosis is expressed in the invagination of solid particles. Pinocytosis is called a bulge. By protruding, the edges of the regions close together, trapping fluid between eukaryotes.
Pinocytosis is a mechanism for the penetration of compounds into the shell. The vacuole diameter is between 0.01 and 1.3 μm. Further, the vacuole begins to sink into the cytoplasmic layer and from the lacing. The connection between the bubbles plays the role of transporting useful particles, breaking down enzymes.
The entire range of digestive functions is divided into the following stages:
- ingestion of components into the body;
- breakdown of enzymes;
- getting into the cytoplasm;
The first phase involves the entry of substances into the human body. Then they begin to disintegrate with the help of lysosomes. The separated particles penetrate into the cytoplasmic field. Undigested residues are simply released naturally. Subsequently, the sinus becomes dense, transformation into granular granules begins.
The main ones will be:
- energy transfer;
Protection is expressed in the barrier between the subunit and the external environment. The film serves as a regulator of exchange between them. As a result, the latter can be active or passive. The selectivity of the necessary substances occurs.
The transport function transfers connections from one mechanism to another through the shell. It is this factor that affects the delivery of useful compounds, the elimination of metabolic and decay products, secretory components. Ionic gradients are generated to maintain ph and ion concentration.
The last two missions are auxiliary. Work at the matrix level is aimed at the correct location of the protein chain inside the cavity, their competent functioning. Due to the mechanical phase, the cell is provided in an autonomous mode.
Energy transfer occurs as a result of photosynthesis in green plastids, respiratory processes in cells inside the cavity. Proteins are also involved in the work. Due to their presence in the membrane, proteins provide the macrocell with the ability to perceive signals. The impulses pass from one target cell to the rest.