Intestinal Giardia - Giardiasis Symptoms And Treatment Methods

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Intestinal Giardia - Giardiasis Symptoms And Treatment Methods
Intestinal Giardia - Giardiasis Symptoms And Treatment Methods
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Video: Giardiasis - Giardia Lamblia 2023, February
Anonim

Last updated 28 June 2017 at 14:17

Reading time: 5 min

The human body is a food base for a variety of bacteria, both beneficial and harmful.

Beneficial bacteria are endowed with a number of functions that help improve the functioning of the entire body. Harmful bacteria on the contrary: they settle in the body, feed on useful substances from human blood, poison it with their own waste products. Helminths are just such harmful microorganisms.

This term refers to one of the types of protozoan parasites, which are the result of many complications and the development of diseases. The disease itself implies an intestinal infection, which was originally recorded in 1859. The direct carriers of the disease are mice, rats, dogs, cats, rabbits and other representatives of the animal world.

Giardiasis is transmitted to humans through another person, and possibly through frequent contact with some animals. Let's take a closer look at what lamblia is.

Content

  • 1 What is a parasite
  • 2 Ways of infection and symptoms of giardiasis
  • 3 Diagnosis of the disease
  • 4 Treatment methods
  • 5 Complications of giardiasis
  • 6 Preventive measures

    6.1 Similar articles

What is a parasite

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The human eye is unable to distinguish between such small parasites, therefore, the diagnosis must be carried out by a specialist. Once in the body, helminths begin to multiply inside the intestines. Their life cycle is divided into two phases: the vegetative phase and the cyst phase.

During the vegetative phase, the form of giardia becomes pear-shaped, it is equipped with flagella, and it is this phase that leads to the development of giardiasis. Intestinal lamblia is also equipped with a suction cup, which is given to it for better adhesion to the intestinal walls. Thus, the helminth lives for about 40 days, while it feeds on digested food.

Outside the body, harmful microorganisms die rapidly; favorable conditions are needed for their life.

When the cyst phase arrives, the microorganism becomes resistant to moisture, ultraviolet rays, disinfectant solutions and frost.

Insects are also carriers of lamblia, since parasites can live in the stomach of a fly for several days. The parasite multiplies by dividing, and in 15 - 20 minutes the number of lamblia in the body can double.

The death of the helminth occurs after it is completely dry for a day or at high temperatures. Even in a pond, when frosty weather sets in, the parasite can live for about 2 months. This microorganism is not destroyed under the influence of gastric juice.

Ways of infection and symptoms of giardiasis

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Pathogens can enter the body through drinking raw water or swimming in a body of water. Children are most susceptible to the appearance of giardiasis, because they often come into close contact with sand or soil, as well as with animals. Particularly affected are those kids who attend preschool institutions.

Giardia can enter the body through insufficient heat treatment of food, especially meat. Another way of infection is determined by non-compliance with their own hygiene standards. Thus, unwashed hands, infected vegetables and fruits, and infected household items can cause the development of giardiasis.

The symptoms of giardiasis are very similar to some other illnesses, such as food poisoning or intestinal disorders. Often a person infected with helminths voices complaints of pain in the abdomen (especially in its upper part), nausea or vomiting, flatulence, constipation or diarrhea, a sharp rise in temperature (mainly up to 38 degrees), decreased appetite, then weight loss, fatigue without causes, sleep disturbance and skin redness, similar to allergic ones.

If the host has good immunity, then the parasites may not appear in any way for a long period. If primary signs are detected, you should immediately contact a specialist, because this ailment can lead to more serious consequences.

Diagnosis of the disease

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Giardiasis is diagnosed by several methods. The specialist provides the correct conclusion on the basis of an assessment of feces, endoscopic examination, by means of PCR and an immunological test. The most primitive measure for detecting Giardia is to submit feces for evaluation. In the laboratory, the presence of helminths is determined using Lugol's liquid, it is dripped onto organic material and the presence of helminths is detected.

The immunological method allows you to determine the presence of antibodies to pathogens; this examination is also performed by donating feces. Endoscopic evaluation allows a more detailed examination of the contents of the intestine. This method is determined to be the most effective. However, the best option would be to conduct all the research together.

In addition to the listed methods, a specialist can also prescribe a general clinical and biochemical blood test and other additional studies.

Treatment methods

Treatment of giardiasis must certainly be comprehensive. In addition to activities that include measures to eliminate worms, taking medications, you should also follow a diet and strengthen immunity.

Medication therapy can be prescribed exclusively by a specialist after all the necessary research has been completed. The doctor may prescribe drugs such as Trichopolum, Ornidazole, Macmiror, etc. The action of these funds is aimed at paralysis of the muscle activity of helminths, as a result of which it die and are eliminated from the body naturally.

The diet includes a ban on spicy, salty, overly sweet foods; carbonated drinks and hypoallergenic elements are also contraindicated. From the group of products that suppress the development of lamblia, the following can be distinguished:

  • dairy products;
  • porridge, preferably on the water;
  • soups;
  • bran bread;
  • greenery;
  • natural honey;
  • eggs (no more than 1 per day).

During the period of therapy, the intake of carbohydrates should be reduced to a minimum, as well as the amount of protein in the diet should be increased. You can eat sour berries and juices, harmful microorganisms cannot tolerate an acidic environment. Fruits, vegetables and bran contain dietary fiber, which has a beneficial effect on the healing process.

Complications of giardiasis

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The development of dangerous microorganisms in the intestines can lead to a number of unpleasant consequences. The excreted waste products of helminths are toxic to the human body, they develop inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. As a result of inflammation, absorption and enzymatic activity deteriorate.

Helminths contribute to chronic inflammation of the biliary tract, they can also cause dyskinesia. The colonization of parasites in the body leads to an inflammatory process in the intestines, which can become chronic. The asymptomatic course of the disease leads to a significant decrease in the functions of the immune system.

Prevention measures

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Prevention of giardiasis includes several simple measures that will help protect yourself from relapses of the disease, as well as from the serious consequences of its course.

These measures include:

  • the use of exclusively purified or boiled liquid;
  • in preschool institutions, it is necessary to conduct a study of children and staff;
  • pets should be regularly treated for worms, and they should also be regularly visited by a veterinarian;
  • it is extremely important to wash your hands as often as possible, using antibacterial soap;
  • children need to be taught to observe their own hygiene standards as early as possible;
  • vegetables, fruits and herbs should be washed intensively, even better - doused with boiling water;
  • it is important to ensure that children do not lift objects from the ground, and also to reduce their stay in unverified sandboxes;
  • bathing should be carried out only in official bodies of water that are checked by the sanitary service;
  • intensive heat treatment of meat and fish.

It is important to follow all the doctor's prescriptions, only in this case the treatment will be fruitful. It must also be remembered that traditional medicine is good in the case when the disease is just beginning to manifest itself or in complex treatment, one should not hope that any of the folk recipes will get rid of parasites in one day and forever.

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