Trichinosis - Symptoms And Signs Of The Disease, Methods Of Treating Trichinosis

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Trichinosis - Symptoms And Signs Of The Disease, Methods Of Treating Trichinosis
Trichinosis - Symptoms And Signs Of The Disease, Methods Of Treating Trichinosis

Video: Trichinosis - Symptoms And Signs Of The Disease, Methods Of Treating Trichinosis

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Video: Trichinosis (Trichinellosis) Worm Infection 2023, January
Anonim

Last updated 1 March 2020 at 00:59

Reading time: 7 minutes

Trichinosis in humans is one of the most serious diseases in parasitology. It is often registered in most countries of the world and in Russia. It develops acutely with possible complications. Fixed in the countries of Germany, USA, Ukraine, Poland.

In the Russian Federation, it is found on the territory of the Khabarovsk Territory, in Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Magadan. Wherever there is a so-called natural reservoir, wild animals. There is also an urban focus of the disease, where pets serve as carriers.

This is helminthiasis in the acute phase, caused by the pathogen Trichinella. Has the following vivid symptoms of trichinosis: fever, body aches, muscle pain, skin rashes, and a high level of eosinophils. The severe stage is manifested by damage to the respiratory system, central nervous system.

Subsequently, untimely treatment of trichinosis can lead to disability and death. Therefore, first of all, it is important not to start the disease and to carry out timely trichinosis treatment.

Content

  • 1 What causes the infection?
  • 2 Routes of entry of invasions
  • 3 What happens after development?
  • 4 Signs of trichinosis

    • 4.1 Erased
    • 4.2 Easy
    • 4.3 Average
  • 5 Disease in children
  • 6 Diagnosis
  • 7 Treatment
  • 8 Preventive measures

    8.1 Similar articles

What causes the infection?

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It is quite easy to catch trichinosis, you need to eat insufficiently thermally processed food. Poorly smoked sausages, bacon, wild boar meat, bear containing trichinella. You can get infected in a synanthropic way. This means that the farming was not carried out correctly.

Once in the human body along with infected food, the larvae throw off the shell, develop into the intestinal phase within a day. Parasite on the mucous membranes of the abdominal cavity. The vital phase is about 40-55 days. A sexually mature female produces up to 1300 eggs per day. Where they turn into motile protozoa and migrate through the lymph system, blood.

Together with the bloodstream, they are found in almost the entire body. In just a week, nematodes enter all organs, lungs, gastrocnemius, deltoid muscles, muscles of the tongue. Hyaluronidase is released, where encapsulation begins.

Six months later, the capsule calcifies, a period of 2 years lasts. Further, the worm dies. In a state of encapsulation, embryos live up to 20, or even more years. It is important to know that a person who has recovered gains immunity from re-infection. There will be special antibodies in the blood, but the larvae in the shell will be stored in the tissues.

What happens after development?

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There are 3 degrees of infection:

  1. enzymatic toxic;
  2. allergenic;
  3. immunopathological;

During the first phase, namely the initial one, microbes only penetrate into the body. Fixing on the mucous membrane, they begin to multiply actively. Pathogens reach the sexually mature step and lay offspring. In this case, the metabolism of worms adversely affects the body. Decay products and waste products cause severe intoxication in the patient. Inflammation begins, the lumen of the intimate organs serves as a focus.

At the allergenic stage, the initial symptoms of trichinosis in humans appear. They will be discussed later in the article. After a week of infection, the parasites begin to multiply, the larvae make their way through the body and sit on the muscles. Blood streams will serve as their recharge. The stage lasts several weeks.

Phase can be detected by the presence of antibodies in the blood, their volume will be high. These antibodies contribute to severe allergies. It manifests itself violently if a person drinks alcohol. The degree of response reflexes depends on the number of inhabited biohelminths, a high concentration provokes a weakening of the immune system.

Inflammation of the vessel walls is formed. This is due to infiltrates, the formation of nodules. Nodules are found in the liver, on the heart muscle, in the brain, because of this, a person can die. A neglected disease in the last phase progresses to focal pneumonia, meningoencephalitis, and allergic myocarditis.

Acute infection by the 2nd month of existence creates a dystrophic imbalance in the body. It is very difficult to recover. After a successful cure, only after a year of rehabilitation and adherence to a diet, a return to a full life begins.

In rare cases, a person becomes incapable of work, a diagnosis is made and a disability group is given. Therefore, it is imperative to know how dangerous the disease and trichinosis are and what symptoms a person has.

Signs of trichinosis

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As mentioned earlier, Trichinella in humans causes the following symptoms: fever, facial swelling, eosinophils in the blood, muscle pain. It happens that with a low activity of ascaris, their presence becomes invisible. There are no symptoms, it already refers to the eosinophilic reaction of the blood.

There are three grades of classification:

  • erased;
  • easy;
  • medium;
  • heavy;

Erased

Incubation lasts 8-20 days, with strain pathogens, the period rises to 35 days. The erased phase lasts 4 weeks. Sign of infection: weak muscle pain, lethargy, fatigue, low-grade fever.

The concentration of eosinophils is within 6-10% with normal leukocyte counts. An erased picture is observed in 20% of those infected.

Easy

The easy stage is 5 weeks. It starts with a high temperature up to 39 degrees, headaches and pain in the lower back. Then the fever drops, a subfebrile temperature arises and lasts up to 7 days. There are aches in the calves, swelling of the face, eyelids.

The latter are characteristic of the first days of infection. Eosinophils up to 9-11%. All phenomena disappear in 10-14 days.

Average

The average is characterized by a period that lasts 14 or 20 days. The heat rises to 40 degrees. It subsides after a while, drops to 38 and remains stable for 7 days. By the second week, subfebrile condition occurs. Fever, severe muscle aches are frequent. There are skin rashes, conjunctivitis and facial puffiness.

The airways become inflamed, bronchitis, pneumonia, pleurisy appear. In a febrile state, there is an increased heartbeat, soreness of the sternum, shortness of breath, tachycardia. In some patients, the digestive system is affected, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea are its companions. With trichinosis in children, lymph nodes may enlarge.

The picture of the signs of the middle period ends after 30 days. There remain small manifestations in the form of painful sensations in the muscle area for two months. Treatment with hormones of a glucorticoid nature shortens the duration, but it takes only six months to recover. Mild and middle stage is present in more than half of patients.

It is easy to confuse with respiratory viruses, flu, colds, food poisoning. Strong intoxication is accompanied by the highest fever of 40 degrees, lasts 20, 30 days. In this state, the patient is often delirious, he is tormented by headaches, insomnia, febrile seizures, intense muscle ailments, until complete immobilization.

The entire trunk, brain, and tissues of internal organs are swollen. Because of what the central nervous system is disturbed, diplopia appears. The form leads to pathologies on the part of the internal organs, which may end badly.

From the side of the heart, there is a disturbed rhythm, deaf tones of the heartbeat, myocarditis. With an ECG, a specialist sees muscle variability and circulatory failure.

The organs of the respiratory apparatus are subject to bronchitis with an asthmatic character, pneumonia of the bronchi. Abdominal syndrome as a result of severe infection. It has diarrhea with blood streaks and mucus.

The long existence of worms damages the gastric mucosa, moving along the walls, they mechanically violate their integrity. Bleeding begins. With liver disorders, everything goes away with therapy. Roundworms do not affect the kidneys.

Disease in children

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It manifests itself with the same symptoms:

  1. temperature;
  2. pain syndrome;

Temperature exposure is lower than in adults. Fever lasts shorter, incubation lasts longer. The erased phase prevails in the child, or the light one. Associated with the highest activation of immunity in childhood. This condition minimizes the risk of pathologies.

Having picked up bacteria, women in a state of pregnancy also suffer mild trichinosis. No edema, muscle syndrome, fever. This shows that the infection does not affect the pregnancy and the life of the mother's fetus.

Diagnosis

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It is carried out permanently. Because the parasitic disease is capable of progression. Epidermal outbreaks, even if a person applies at the very beginning of infection, end in 20% death. Therefore, self-medication is not permissible, it can delay helminthiasis, but not cure. In addition, the patient thinks that he is recovering, because some factors go away.

The specialist will prescribe anthelmintic drugs that block the muscles of the worms and remove them during natural emptying.

In the middle phase, a drug with mebendazole is prescribed. Scheme of taking: 3 times a day for 10 days. There are many medicines, but each has a number of contraindications. Albendazole is prohibited for women in a state of pregnancy, persons with diseases of the retina.

Vermox tablets are widely used in the treatment of helminthiasis in children. A positive result is achieved in 90% of cases.

Tibendazole is prescribed for those who have a high predisposition to drug side effects. It has a minimum of contraindications and is also active. It is even taken as a preventive measure.

Preventive measures

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It is better to prevent any disease than to think about how to treat it later. To prevent this from happening, there are basic rules that must be followed:

  • thorough heat treatment of meat;
  • proper livestock maintenance;

In the first case, long stewing of meat products, freezing to minus 30 degrees for 6 days, kill Trichinella. Do not give meat if it is infected to animals. They can become infected and be carriers.

Farmers are encouraged to keep all animals in a stable and not graze freely. 2 times a year, products must be submitted for veterinary control. In the presence of worms, the product is not suitable for consumption and is completely destroyed.

Do not buy from unverified sources if you are not sure about the quality of the food.

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