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Last updated 1 March 2020 at 01:17
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The most common and often prescribed test to confirm the suspected diagnosis is a blood test. Among other survey methods, it is the most accessible. At the same time, its indicators show what the patient's condition is, reveals some diseases.
In adults, the values will be higher, in children, respectively, less. Blood norm indicates the normal state of health of the patient. A general blood test - an exceeded norm will show the presence of an acute inflammatory process, the presence of a therapeutic disease, the presence of a viral or bacterial infection.
- 1 Blood indicators
- 2 Value of analysis
- 3 Life cycle
- 4 Breeding options
- 5 Ways of infection
6 Changes in blood count
6.1 Similar articles
A blood test is issued as a table. All the studied indicators, their values, what values should be normal are entered here. Decoding will show each person whether the deviation of his KLA from the standard is great. But more accurate conclusions must be made by a specialist.
General blood test rates:
- Erythrocytes 4.3 - 5.2 for a man, for a woman - 3.5 - 4.4;
- hemoglobin 120-160. Higher rates are acceptable for men;
- leukocytes 4-6;
- lymphocytes 20 - 40%;
- platelets 200 - 300.
A normal analysis (blood norm) may contain some error, but it should not exceed 0.5-1 units or 3-4 percent with a percentage of the result. In all other cases, one should talk about the presence of systemic disorders of the body.
The number of erythrocytes shows whether the blood is coping with its function, whether the body is sufficiently saturated with oxygen, whether there is oxygen starvation. With low results, the body does not have enough oxygen supply, with high results, red blood cells can join and stick together.
Hemoglobin is one of the most important indicators. It is a protein involved in oxygen transport. It shows the quality of the blood. The norm of indicators is 120-140. Children tend to have lower numbers, while adult men have higher numbers. With lower CBC values, we can talk about anemia, while overestimated test data indicate a high probability of blood clots and vascular occlusion.
Leukocytes in the KLA should normally not exceed 5 units. They perform a protective function, therefore, their presence in large quantities indicates the presence of an inflammatory process. The more inflammation, the more white blood cells will be found. You can almost always talk about a bacterial infection.
The rate of a general blood count of lymphocytes is shown both as a percentage and as an exact number of units detected. An increase in lymphocytes can indicate some viral infections or blood diseases.
Platelets are small particles that take part in the formation of a blood clot, blood thickening in case of injury. Normal readings indicate that a person will not die from blood loss in the event of minor injury. A low number of them can explain poor clotting, a high number - the possibility of blood clots.
The blood count table also contains ESR. This indicator shows the protein content.
The blood test shows 15 mm per hour for a woman and 10 mm per hour for a man. During the same period, a child will have a smaller amount of erythrocytes. Consider the change in the KLA indicators, if the body has damaged the hepatic fluke.
The hepatic fluke (trematode) is a parasite that lives in the human body. It has a very complex breeding system, life cycle, several stages of larval development.
The developmental cycle of the hepatic fluke has three active individuals. This is an intermediate, main host, a larva (lives in the external environment). The larva cannot live outside the body; it only spends intermediate stages there.
Sexually mature adults infect the liver. It could be a cattle organ. Cattle living near water bodies, like humans, is the main host of the liver fluke. While the intermediate host of the hepatic fluke is the snail.
The stages of the life cycle of the hepatic fluke worm are distinguished by the following periods:
- the ingress of an egg into the external environment along with the feces of the main host;
- larva formation (miracidium);
- the formation of sporocysts in the tissues of the intermediate host living in water;
- transformation of sporocysts into a new species of larvae;
- the formation of mobile larvae;
- cyst formation in the mammalian body (intermediate host of the second level);
- there is a further development of the hepatic fluke helminth, namely, the transition of the cyst into metacercariae, which can infect a person;
- the entry of the parasite into the body of the main host.
As you can see, it is very difficult to describe the life cycle of a parasite in simple words. This is a long and difficult process. The intermediate host living with the hepatic fluke does not suffer, it is only the intermediate host of the hepatic fluke parasite. While the clinic of the disease in a person consists of a large number of different symptoms that traumatize him and reduce the quality of life.
The developmental stages of the hepatic fluke may be interrupted if a favorable condition for further development does not occur. So, for example, when miracidia do not get into the water, the life cycle of the individual will end there.
The cycle of the liver fluke includes the development of both hermaphroditic individuals and individuals that reproduce through parthenogenesis. This is a different level of development. Such individuals have completely different structures, food preferences, development paths.
Such an adaptation guarantees the safety of the species in nature. Even under unfavorable living conditions, with the temporary absence of snails or river molluscs (the intermediate host of the parasite is the hepatic fluke).
The development of an individual liver fluke takes a long time. There may be small pauses in the cycle. The worm waits for more favorable conditions for reproduction. Most often, it takes 2 months before the full development of a sexually mature individual.
Despite the fact that the hepatic fluke does not include a human in the development cycle, humans often fall prey to this flatworm. The large habitat of this parasite endangers large numbers of people.
This can include eating poorly cooked cattle meat, poorly washed vegetables, drinking raw water from rivers or lakes. The most common source of infection is the cow's liver and the process of converting cysts that has begun in it.
Despite the way worms get to humans, the hepatic fluke causes great damage to the entire body, starting with the liver and biliary tract. Pain in the right hypochondrium can be a symptom of various liver diseases, but in the presence of a hepatic fluke, a change in the patient's blood picture occurs.
Blood test changes
UAC, which is mandatory for any doubtful state of the human body, changes significantly with the appearance of the parasite. Having passed a blood test, not a single indicator will have a full norm. Since adults feed on the host's liver, hemoglobin will be significantly reduced.
The norms of indicators of the analysis of capillary blood for leukocytes, with inflammatory processes of the biliary tract, will be greatly exceeded. As with all liver diseases, the level of protein in the blood will significantly decrease. Total bilirubin may increase. The wastes of the worm's vital activity released into the plasma cause severe intoxication, respectively, the level of lymphocytes will be significantly increased.
The table of analysis of blood parameters in such a patient will disturb any doctor. An allergic reaction to toxins is also possible. A blood test will show elevated eosinophils.