Roundworms - Human Parasites, Methods Of Treatment And Prevention

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Roundworms - Human Parasites, Methods Of Treatment And Prevention
Roundworms - Human Parasites, Methods Of Treatment And Prevention

Video: Roundworms - Human Parasites, Methods Of Treatment And Prevention

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Video: Peter Chin-Hong, MD, Helminths Part 2: Roundworms II 2023, February
Anonim

Last updated 1 March 2020 at 00:57

Reading time: 5 min

The roundworm or nematode is a representative of non-articulated, land animals, from the group of molting, with a primary body cavity filled with water.

Information obtained in the course of research carried out in 2011 suggests the existence of more than 24 thousand types of roundworms, but scientists are sure of the existence of more than a million varieties.

Round parasites are worms that are causative agents of diseases in humans and animals, affecting the roots of plants.

Roundworms have the following characteristics:

  1. There are no respiratory organs of the nematode. Breathing of round parasites of worms is carried out through integuments or by anaerobic method;
  2. They feed mainly on bacteria, protozoa or algae;
  3. A cylindrical body with a circular cross-section.
  4. The structure of round parasites of worms is characterized by the presence of a skin-muscle sac, which includes the cuticle, hypodermis and musculature.
  5. Its length ranges from 80 microns to 8 m, while females are usually much longer than males;
  6. The digestive system is through;
  7. 5 stages of the life cycle were revealed: 4 juvenile and one adult, between which molt occurs;
  8. Reproduction in roundworm parasites is sexual, a distinctive feature is the tubular system and heterogeneity. Due to the fact that the female and male of the parasite have distinct external differences in the structure of the genitals, but hermaphrodites are rare.

The answer to this question is quite extensive, for example, free-living parasitic roundworms live in the soil, in fresh water bodies, in the seas, oceans, and their number can exceed a million parasites per one cubic meter.

From a medical point of view, the nematode is of great interest, since most of the parasites that feed on the human body belong to this species.

Content

  • 1 Invasive disease caused by nematodes
  • 2 Invasions in animals and plants
  • 3 Symptoms of nematodosis in humans
  • 4 Treatment
  • 5 Prevention

    5.1 Similar articles

Invasive diseases caused by nematodes

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Parasitic roundworms are a type of helminth that affects most tissues in humans, animals and plants. Diseases that cause roundworms are called nematodes.

In humans, such an invasion causes serious pathologies of the cardiovascular system, stomach, digestive system, intestines, kidneys, liver, most of the muscle groups and respiratory organs.

This type of helminthiasis is divided into:

  • Geonematoses (Larvae develop in water, earth, on household items);
  • Bionematoses (The development of parasites is associated with a change of hosts, infection occurs through vectors);

Eggs and larvae of roundworms under favorable environmental conditions retain the ability to become infected for a long time.

In humans, the most common:

  1. Enterobiasis;
  2. Ascariasis;
  3. Acantocheilonematosis;
  4. Angiostrongylosis;
  5. Anisakidosis;
  6. Baylisascariasis;
  7. Wuchereriasis;
  8. Mansonellosis;
  9. Necatorosis;
  10. Tominxosis;
  11. Onchocerciasis;
  12. Dracunculiasis;
  13. Strongyloidosis;
  14. Trichocephalosis;
  15. Toxocariasis;
  16. Trichinosis;
  17. Dirofilariasis;

Ascariasis is a helminthic invasion belonging to the group of nematodes, the causative agents of which are roundworms. The size of an adult parasite is usually 25 to 30 cm in length. This type of helminthiasis ranks second in prevalence among people, second only to enterobiasis.

The parasitic hateful round worm enters the human body through unwashed hands, vegetables, fruits. In rare cases, insects, especially flies, carry the eggs of the parasite to household items.

Once in the intestine, the larva grows and develops into an adult parasite. With excessively rapid reproduction, a large number of roundworms become entangled in the cause, intestinal obstruction.

Nematodes can live and multiply in the human intestine for several years, while destroying the main blood vessels and feeding on blood serum or red blood cells. The parasite larvae are able to penetrate the liver, respiratory system, brain, eyes and kidneys.

Invasions in animals and plants

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Roundworm infection occurs in all types of vertebrates. They can parasitize almost the entire body of animals. The larvae and eggs of worms enter the animal's body with grass, water, developing there until the sexually mature stage. In rare cases, the parasite penetrates the skin or mucous membranes.

The prevalence is influenced by:

  1. Intermediate hosts;
  2. Climate and ambient temperature;
  3. Conditions for keeping animals;
  4. Disease prevention, treatment and vaccination;
  5. Ascariasis, bunostomosis and trichinosis cause the greatest damage to livestock farms.

The main types of nematodosis in plants are:

  • Aphelenchoidosis affecting leaves
  • Ditylenkhoz causes diseases of the stems (including cracking);
  • Meloidoginosis, Kaktoderosis and Pratilenkhoz negatively affecting the root system.

In infected plants, roots deteriorate and die, galls are formed, and the stems crack. Without timely treatment, nematodes infect roots and leaves.

Symptoms of nematodosis in humans

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Symptoms depend on the location of the nematode and the degree of invasion. In humans, in most cases, there is an infection with intestinal worms that cause damage to the digestive system, therefore, the main signs of a nematode can be called:

  1. Violation of bowel movements (constipation, diarrhea with loose stools);
  2. Not localized pain in the abdomen;
  3. Lack of appetite;
  4. Attacks of nausea, heartburn;
  5. Reflex eruption of stomach contents;
  6. Stomachache;
  7. Salivation;
  8. Inflammation of the colon.

If during the process of helminthiasis, the respiratory system was affected, a cough, symptoms of pneumonia or shortness of breath may appear. The helminth parasitizing in muscle tissues provokes pain and inflammation in the affected areas. Conjunctivitis and decreased vision, accompanied by tearing, indicate roundworms in the eyes.

Also, the invasion can be accompanied by general signs, such as:

  • Allergic reactions;
  • Eosinophilia;
  • Weakness, decreased performance;
  • Sleep disorder;
  • Mental disorders (stress, nervousness, depression);
  • Itching in the anal canal;
  • Skin dermatitis;
  • Jaundice (with damage to the liver or yolk bladder);
  • Dark bags under the eyes;
  • Brittle nail plates;
  • Teeth grinding.

With a large accumulation of nematodes, intestinal obstruction may develop, and if the respiratory tract is damaged, mechanical asphyxia may occur.

Treatment

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Usually roundworms and their eggs are found in the patient's feces. Also, quite often a laboratory blood test, scraping and biopsy is prescribed. In rare cases, imaging methods are used: X-ray, ultrasound, CT, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography.

Usually appoint:

  1. Mebendazole the drug is absorbed worse, thereby allowing to achieve a lower concentration of toxins during the treatment of ascariasis and pinworms;
  2. Albendazole is widely used in the treatment of most invasions, as well as for the elimination of larvae and outside the intestinal pathogens;
  3. Levamisole is prescribed for hookworm disease;
  4. Pirantel. The advantage of the drug is its low toxicity. It effectively copes with all types of intestinal parasites, but does not affect the larvae;
  5. Piperazine is the least toxic and safest drug. It is widely used in the treatment of pinworms in young children and pregnant women.

Among folk methods of treatment, decoctions based on oak bark, pomegranate peel and onions are widespread. It is also recommended to use garlic, pumpkin seeds, carrot juice, which have pronounced anthelmintic properties.

Prevention

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Since the types called roundworms live in almost all environmental conditions and are found everywhere, it is recommended to adhere to the following rules:

  • Regular cleaning of the apartment, house, playground, and other surrounding areas;
  • Refrain from resting and swimming in questionable bodies of water;
  • Boiling and purification of drinking water;
  • Thorough processing of vegetables and fruits.
  • It is advisable to peel the root vegetables;
  • Compliance with hygiene rules (you must thoroughly wash your hands and use antiseptics, especially after contact with stray animals, walks);
  • Timely visit a shower or bath, take a bath;
  • Avoid landfills, and if possible convey a message to local authorities and urge them to take environmental measures to eliminate the problem;
  • In the field, it is advisable to use disposable tableware;
  • Organization of effluents in accordance with the requirements of sanitary standards;
  • Regular nail clipping;
  • Use of individual household items, clothing and linen;
  • Thorough heat treatment of meat dishes.

For domestic and farm animals, it is necessary to carry out periodic deworming. To stop the rapidly multiplying species of plant parasites, special chemicals will help.

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