Toxocariasis - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment Of Toxocariasis And Diagnosis

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Toxocariasis - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment Of Toxocariasis And Diagnosis
Toxocariasis - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment Of Toxocariasis And Diagnosis

Video: Toxocariasis - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment Of Toxocariasis And Diagnosis

Video: Toxocariasis - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment Of Toxocariasis And Diagnosis
Video: Helminths Toxocara Trichinella 2023, May

Last updated 1 March 2020 at 00:49

Reading time: 7 minutes


  • 1 Features of toxocariasis
  • 2 How does infection occur
  • 3 Symptoms of the appearance of toxocariasis
  • 4 Forms of the disease
  • 5 Diagnosis of the disease
  • 6 Treatment of toxocariasis disease
  • 7 Prevention of toxocariasis
  • 8 Is it worth treating toxocariasis?
  • 9 Treatment with alternative methods

    9.1 Related articles

Features of toxocariasis


In animals, toxocar infection is carried out through the environment, or from mother to offspring, as well as through breastfeeding. In humans, it is often due to insufficient adherence to the rules of their own hygiene: for example, after stroking a pet, they do not wash their hands. After that, he takes food, along with which the helminths enter the mouth.

There are also other causes of infection, such as:

  • Contaminated food or liquid;
  • Indoor dust or pet hair;
  • Insufficiently washed hands or household appliances.

There are such rare cases when a person was infected through eating insufficiently processed meat, as well as through the placenta from mother to child.

After entering the human body, toxocars can form there without hindrance for several years and at the same time not give themselves away in any way. Usually, the greatest peak of parasite activity occurs during the period of decrease in the level of human immunity.

Signs of decreased immunity are as follows:

  • Transferring stress;
  • Polluted ecology in the region;
  • Postponed infectious diseases;
  • Certain chemicals
  • Exposure to harmful radiation.

Symptoms of the appearance of toxocariasis


Toxocarias can manifest themselves almost in the same way as other types of helminths; only contacting a specialist will help to identify the symptoms of toxocariasis. There are three main stages of the disease: acute, chronic and latent periods.

Let's consider their signs in more detail

1. Acute period of toxocariasis

Acute manifestation of the disease is often accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • Overwork for no particular reason;
  • Temperature rise (from 37 to 38 degrees);
  • A sharp decrease in appetite, resulting in weight loss;
  • There are changes in the blood (this aspect can be confirmed by a blood test);
  • Pain in the muscles;
  • Manifestation of allergic reactions (rash on the body, urticaria, etc.);
  • Swollen lymph nodes.

These indicators change depending on the degree of damage to internal organs. The chronic period of the disease is predominantly found.

2. Chronic period of development of toxocara

The development of the chronic period is characterized by two phases: exacerbation and remission. At the time of the exacerbation phase, symptoms similar to the acute period of the disease appear.

The remission phase can proceed both without any symptoms or retain some of them (fever, significantly reduced appetite, enlarged nodes or liver, etc.). In this period, manifestations of allergic reactions of the skin are also possible.

3. The latent period of the disease

This period is characterized by the absence of any signs of the presence of harmful microorganisms, therefore, it is possible to identify them only with the participation of specialists.

Symptoms may appear with some deviation, it depends on the degree of decreased immunity, the number of larvae in the body, as well as the degree of their migration (the area of the affected organs).

Forms of the disease


The most rational option in the event of the first symptoms of toxocariasis is to visit your doctor. Many people are terrified of specialists in white coats, but you shouldn't delay the trip in order to avoid more serious consequences.

Diagnosis of toxocariasis is as follows: the attending physician should establish a preliminary diagnosis based on anamnesis data (frequent contact with animals, whether they are at home, etc.), the presence of pronounced signs of the disease, as well as eosinophilia.

The doctor may also prescribe a liver biopsy, on the basis of which it is determined whether harmful microorganisms are present in the body. An excellent result in this area is shown by the ELISA method, which determines the presence of antibodies to toxocar antigens in the blood.

Stool analysis in such a situation will not help, because the parasite does not live in the intestines. Then the specialist will prescribe the most effective medicines depending on the form and course of the disease.

In the case of the development of the ocular form of the disease, in parallel with the above measures, an ophthalmological examination may also be prescribed.

Treatment of toxocariasis disease


To date, the methods of treating toxocariasis are far from perfect. This is due to the fact that often antihelmite drugs affect the larva migrating in the body, and mature adults receive only some effect.

Treatment with "Vermoxom" implies a course of 2 to 4 weeks, tablets should be taken twice a day. The patient's age does not play a special role here. One of the positive aspects of this treatment is the absence of side effects.

Treatment of toxocariasis in adults with Mintezol: it is taken for about 5 to 10 days, breaks in treatment are prohibited. This drug is easily absorbed and rapidly eliminated from the body. However, mintezol has a number of side effects, such as: headaches, loss of appetite, nausea, fatigue, and abdominal pain. All side effects pass quickly.

The duration of taking Ditrazine citrate can be from 2 to 4 weeks. The tablets also have side effects, among which fever can be distinguished in rare cases.

It should be remembered that each drug must be used with critical care in relation to children, pregnant and lactating women, and the elderly. Side effects can be caused not only by the effect of the drug on the body, but also be the result of the death of harmful microorganisms.

The principle of treating toxocariasis with the use of anthelmintic drugs is to block the muscle activity of parasites, as a result of which the helminths cannot gain a foothold in the body and can be easily removed.

Prevention of toxocariasis


The prevention of toxocariasis today is defined as a state problem. Health authorities, various stations for the fight against stray animals and sanitary and epidemiological services are involved in the prevention of this disease.

There is a correct opinion that the disease is easier to prevent than to cure it later. That is why adherence to preventive measures is extremely important.

The main preventive measures:

  1. Intensive adherence to personal hygiene standards. Hands should be washed several times a day with antibacterial soap, it is especially important to wash your hands after each contact with animals or soil.
  2. If pets live in the house, they must be regularly subjected to veterinary examination, and in case of infection, immediately treated.
  3. It is necessary to carry out regular helminthization of animals, this preventive measure will avoid many problems.
  4. Among the preventive measures, one can single out the urgent need to reduce the number of stray animals.
  5. Allocation of specialized places for walking pets, often people walk their dogs wherever necessary.
  6. Before eating, you should thoroughly wash vegetables and fruits, preferably pour boiling water over them.
  7. Mandatory intensive processing of meat products. Insufficiently fried meat can cause the development of helminths, the wrong technology of salting fat can also develop the disease. Salting fish or caviar should be entrusted to professionals, because certain knowledge is also needed in this area.
  8. Replacing the sand after some time in children's sandboxes is one of the main measures to prevent infestation of parasites. Protective structures from stray animals are also needed in playgrounds, parks, etc.
  9. Insects are also mechanical carriers of helminths; preventive measures must be taken to exterminate them.
  10. At the slightest suspicion of toxocariasis, you must immediately contact a medical institution for testing.

Particular attention should be paid to such categories of people as pet owners, children from 3 to 5 years old, nursery workers or gardeners, as well as people with mental disabilities.

Is it worth treating toxocariasis?


Treating with traditional methods is not such an effective measure. It is worth paying attention to the methods of traditional medicine when the course of the main treatment has passed, i.e. to restore the body.

A handful of roasted pumpkin seeds in the morning will help speed up the healing process. You can also add garlic to your favorite dishes to help eliminate parasites. Various herbs, the main distinguishing feature of which is bitterness, help to cure the body of parasites.

It should be remembered that if a disease is detected in one family member, all the rest should be subjected to therapy. At the end of the treatment, you should remember about the rules of your own hygiene, in order to avoid the return of unwanted guests, and the cured organism will say “thank you” over time.

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