Table of contents:
- Causes of opisthorchiasis
- Symptoms of opisthorchiasis in children
- Complications with opisthorchiasis
- Diagnosis of opisthorchiasis in a child
- Treatment of opisthorchiasis in young children
Video: Opisthorchiasis In Children - Symptoms And Treatment Of Opisthorchiasis In Children
Last updated 20 January 2018 at 07:03 PM
Reading time: 6 minutes
Opisthorchiasis is a parasitic disease caused by fluke class flatworms.
They enter the body through food, and occasionally through contact with an infected person, and affect the liver and pancreas.
Parasites affect the general well-being of a person, the central nervous system, his mood and stamina. The disease can cause a number of dangerous complications. A big risk for children whose immunity does not yet allow them to fight the disease.
- 1 Causes of opisthorchiasis
- 2 Symptoms of opisthorchiasis in children
- 3 Complications of opisthorchiasis
- 4 Diagnosis of opisthorchiasis in a child
- 5 Treatment of opisthorchiasis in young children
6.1 Similar articles
Causes of opisthorchiasis
Opisthorchiasis, or otherwise Vinogradov's disease, is easy to cause in adults. It is enough to eat a species of cyprinid fish, which is not processed thermally or otherwise, - the main carrier of the disease.
As for children, it is even easier for them to catch the infection due to hygiene problems.
Here is a list of all the dangerous actions that can lead a baby to opisthorchiasis:
- swimming in fresh water;
- neglect of personal hygiene, in particular hand washing;
- contact with an infected person;
- eating raw or underprocessed food;
- if particles of contaminated fish get into other products, they also become sources of threat;
- through the scales of infected fish.
It turns out that it is very difficult to protect a child from the disease. Reservoirs threaten with the fact that the parasite lives in them for a very long time, getting there with the feces of the past owner. Here he is waiting for a new owner, which a child can become if he accidentally swallows water.
The larvae of opisthorchis (a parasite that causes the disease) can also be on the hands of someone from the environment or the sick person himself, who then takes his fingers in his mouth or touches his food with them.
Fortunately, there is no threat of contracting opisthorchis in a child in the womb. This disease is not transmitted in utero.
But it can lead to complications of pregnancy and problems in the fetus itself: hypoxia both during pregnancy and during childbirth. Opisthorchiasis weakens labor, which slows it down and deprives the baby of oxygen for some time.
Symptoms of opisthorchiasis in children
If opisthorchiasis in children, then urgent treatment is necessary. Symptoms that are often similar to other diseases, but together make it possible to diagnose opisthorchiasis, will help to determine the disease.
Often they do not appear immediately: if a child became infected in childhood, being in a highly endemic area of the disease, opisthorchiasis will manifest itself with a sharp jump in immunity or stress.
Sometimes the disease manifests itself only in old age, but this is a process of chronic opisthorchiasis. The acute form has much more pronounced signs, partly coinciding with the chronic, but many times greater in strength.
There are a number of features:
- upper respiratory tract catarrh;
- intoxication, accompanied by symptoms such as: vomiting, nausea, problems with stools;
- changes in the blood picture - an increase in alpha globulins per unit of blood, an increase in ESR;
- rashes on the skin;
- an increase in the size of the liver;
- an increase in lymph nodes that accompanies many diseases, but with opisthorchiasis, it is especially pronounced;
- in children of middle and senior school age - fever, development of pneumonia;
- allergic hepatitis;
- joint and muscle pain;
- general weakness - the child gets tired easily, cannot perform complex physical actions, wants to sleep more than usual;
- pain in the areas where parasites are located: in the upper abdomen, rarely in the back in the left hypochondrium. Most often, pain is present in the right hypochondrium and has a dull, bursting character;
- anemia - a sharp decrease in hemoglobin in the blood;
- fever, often not part of the fever, but always accompanying the illness. An increase of one degree is observed;
- violation of sleep rhythms, irritability and moodiness.
Disorders in the work of the gallbladder were noticed separately in the study of x-rays in children. The functions of the liver are slightly impaired, and the bladder is enlarged and tense. The increase causes not only problems with the system, but also a deterioration in the well-being of the child.
In general, symptoms are divided into four types: typhoid, cholangistic, hepatocholangistic, bronchopulmonary. Each has a different spectrum of manifestations of the disease and can indicate an acute or chronic phase in a child.
Complications with opisthorchiasis
Treatment of opisthorchiasis in children should be carried out immediately due to the severity of complications that appear when the course of medication is delayed.
Here is an incomplete list of them:
- cirrhosis and liver abscess;
Diagnosis of opisthorchiasis in a child
For a clear definition of the disease, an epidemiological analysis is collected, during which the reasons for the appearance of opisthorchiasis in children will be revealed.
It is necessary not only to tell what the child has eaten recently, but also to mention the level of personal hygiene, to remember whether he has come into contact with someone with similar symptoms.
Collect stool samples for parasite eggs is also separated. Another important symptom is jaundice. In addition to collecting feces, a blood test is also carried out, which helps to see changes in the blood picture and to identify whether they are associated with opisthorchiasis or still another disease.
One of the unpleasant, but effective types of diagnostics - palpation, reveals painful reactions when examining the skin on the left, where hypersthesia is observed.
The content of enzymes responsible for the pancreas decreases. Gastric secretion with low acidity, in which it is even easier for parasites to develop. Cholangitis is a specific sign of pediatric opisthorchiasis in children.
Treatment of opisthorchiasis in young children
The treatment cycle consists of four, usually three steps:
- a special diet is prescribed. It helps to cope with side symptoms and prepare the body for the use of drugs;
- taking medications aimed at removing worms and parasites from the body;
- then - an antibacterial course - antibiotics, mainly, as well as probiotics;
- after an intensive course of treatment, it is necessary to restore the microflora, therefore, digestive enzymes are taken.
The course of treatment always begins not immediately with the fight against parasites, but first with smoothing the symptoms. It is necessary to remove allergic reactions, disorders of the central nervous system, stool and bronchial function.
In the latter group of children, treatment and prevention of opisthorchiasis are complicated due to the narrow range of acceptable drugs.
At the second stage, the doses of the medicine are carefully selected, which must be prescribed and agreed with the doctor. In addition to antihistamines, which simply kill harmful organisms, choleretic drugs are also used.
The latter allow you to remove dead microorganisms from the body, thus reducing the risk of a recurrence of the disease. If the disease passes in an especially acute form, injections are used, sometimes - specialized glucorticode tablets.
Because the circulatory system of children is easily destroyed, especially by such parasites and with enhanced treatment, they are required to take drugs for the heart in parallel.
The third stage is rehabilitation, when the microflora is restored, and the child is under constant medical supervision.
In no case should you engage in the elimination of parasites using folk methods, because in children this will not only not work, but will also lead to serious complications. In general, it is possible to cure opisthorchiasis in a child even faster than in an adult, you just need to consult a doctor in time.
Do not forget about measures aimed at reducing the risk of disease, especially recurrence.
During the course of treatment, it is necessary to be observed by a doctor, as for those who have not yet become infected, the system of measures is simple:
- Basic personal hygiene is essential. Explain to your child that hands need to be washed after the street, before eating, that in no case should you bite your nails or put your fingers in your mouth while walking, when parasite larvae may be in the palm of your hand. Help him learn how to wash the area between his fingers, do not let him miss the tubercle of the thumb, where parasites most often remain.
- Always handle the food you give your child enough to be sterile. If a child has a habit of eating unwashed fruits, it is necessary to wean him, show the correct actions.
- Keep your child out of cooking alone, let him be supervised. It is easy for children to confuse cutting boards, not to fry the fish, and in general, you should make sure that they not only do not pick up parasites, but also do not burn themselves, for example.
- It is worth swimming only in reservoirs, whose waters are under the supervision of the local government, and better - in the chlorinated water of the pool.
- When in areas with a threat of infection, especially carefully monitor the hygiene of the child and what he eats.
- Make sure the water is sterile or, if it is not already free of harmful organisms, boil it. A 10 minute boil is enough to ensure that the water is safe.