Feces For Analysis: Types, How To Collect And Hand Over, Decoding

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Feces For Analysis: Types, How To Collect And Hand Over, Decoding
Feces For Analysis: Types, How To Collect And Hand Over, Decoding

Video: Feces For Analysis: Types, How To Collect And Hand Over, Decoding

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: How to Collect a Feces (Stool) Sample 2023, February
Anonim

Feces for analysis - the result of the research largely depends on how seriously you approach the collection of material for research. Before taking a stool test, it is necessary to exclude the intake of alcohol and certain medications, follow a special diet and prepare a clean container for collecting material.

The content of the article:

  • 1 How to get tested correctly
  • 2 feces for analysis - how to collect
  • 3 feces for analysis - how to take
  • 4 Types of stool tests
  • 5 Analysis of feces for protozoa

    5.1 Preparing for stool analysis

  • 6 Feces for analysis of enterobiasis (pinworm eggs)
  • 7 feces for analysis - helminth eggs (worm eggs)

    7.1 Preparation for analysis

  • 8 Studies of feces for occult blood
  • 9 Coprogram

    9.1 Preparation for examination

  • 10 Stool carbohydrate content

    10.1 Preparation for examination:

How to get tested correctly

Sooner or later, every adult faces the question of taking an analysis for eggs, worms. This examination is required for any registration in a medical institution, the admission of children to all preschool organizations.

How to collect feces for analysis
How to collect feces for analysis

If you notice discomfort in your well-being, or you are just a responsible parent and want to make sure that there are no parasites in your child's body.

Conditions that must be met:

  • freezing is not allowed;
  • long-term storage is not allowed (more than 5 - 6 hours);
  • no transport media other than the one indicated are suitable;
  • a loosely closed container is not allowed;
  • the biomaterial collected the day before is not subject to research.

Feces for analysis - how to collect

A quality result can be obtained only with good preparation for this procedure. Feces must be handed over to the laboratory no later than 12 hours after the act of defecation. If a child needs to pass it, you should carefully monitor that it does not contain urine impurities. It is best to do this in a clean, dry pot. Collecting analysis from the toilet is prohibited.

An adult can have an act of defecation, on a clean sheet of paper, and then dispose of the feces. It is better to place the material in a clean, dry container with a special spoon.

It takes about five grams of biological material from different sites. For example, an anal scraping is used to detect pinworms. This procedure can be easily done at home yourself. It is necessary to stick the adhesive tape to the base of the anus and then apply it to a glass slide provided by a physician or pediatrician.

The manipulation should be carried out only in the morning, without first washing away. It is impossible to collect material after an enema, taking a laxative and the introduction of suppositories.

Feces for analysis - how to take

After the work done, the container must be signed, indicate the surname, name and date of birth on it. Upon receipt of the test form, the healthcare professional should tell you how to store feces for testing for worm eggs.

How to collect feces for analysis
How to collect feces for analysis

If the act occurred in the morning, it is advisable to deliver it to the laboratory in a warm state. If at night, it is recommended to put the material in the refrigerator, the temperature should not exceed 5 degrees, it is desirable to place the container on a shelf away from the freezer, but not on the refrigerator door.

The choice of a laboratory that will conduct the analysis must be approached responsibly, as well as the choice of a doctor to whom you entrust your health. Laboratories such as Gemotest and Invitro are a guarantor of high quality and one hundred percent reliability.

Types of stool tests

Modern medicine offers several methods by which feces are examined for eggs of worms. Which of them needs to be done and how to pass, the attending physician will explain. It all depends on the ultimate goal.

Feces for analysis to determine the presence of parasites can be assigned both general and selective. You can also conduct a study of feces for the presence of intestinal pathology, changes in microflora. When the doctor recommends taking a stool test, he issues a special form (direction), in which it is already noted what exactly to look for.

Each type of research has its own characteristics that relate to and preparation for them. It even matters how much stool analysis can be stored.

Stool analysis for protozoa

This analysis is done for suspected protozoa infection and as a preliminary analysis before planned hospitalization in a hospital, as well as when registering a child in child care facilities, etc.

Preparing for stool analysis

Feces for analysis are collected in a disposable container with a screw cap and a spoon (it can be obtained in the treatment room) in an amount of no more than 1/3 of the container volume or in a cleanly washed glass jar. The surname, initials, date of birth of the patient, date and time of collection of the material must be clearly indicated on the container.

How to collect feces for analysis
How to collect feces for analysis

During collection, it is necessary to avoid impurities of urine, secreted genitals. Before being sent to the laboratory, the material should be stored in a refrigerator at 4-8 degrees C. The material should be delivered to the laboratory on the day of collection.

The units of measurement on the results sheet indicate not found / found, and what is found. Of greatest importance is the detection in the feces of the following protozoa that cause diseases: Entamoeba Histolytica (dysenteric amoeba) causes amoebiasis - a disease characterized by ulcerative lesions of the large intestine, sometimes complicated by liver abscesses, damage to the lungs and other organs. The pathogen enters the human body with contaminated food or water.

The incubation period (from the moment of infection to the manifestation of the first symptoms) lasts from 1 week to 3 months. The disease begins relatively acutely. Weakness, headache, moderate pain in the abdomen appear, the stool becomes liquid with an admixture of vitreous mucus and blood. The temperature is subfebrile. If the disease is not treated, then after the acute period, as a rule, there is a prolonged remission, then the disease worsens again and takes on a chronic course.

Dysentery amoeba occurs in the intestines in two forms. The tissue form causes ulceration of the intestinal walls. The presence of this form is characteristic of acute amoebiasis. The luminal form is characteristic of those recovering from acute amoebiasis, those suffering from chronic amoebiasis and carriers. Lamblia intestinalis (lamblia) is a parasite in the small intestine and gallbladder. Their detection indicates a disease. Infection occurs by transmission of the pathogen from person to person.

How to collect feces for analysis
How to collect feces for analysis

Direct transmission occurs between children through dirty hands, and indirect transmission through dirty food and water. Giardiasis is manifested by periodic nausea, increased gas production (flatulence), diarrhea. In severe forms of the disease, food absorption may be impaired, which is manifested by weight loss.

The remaining symptoms depend on which parts of the intestine are affected. Balantidium coli (balantidium) parasitizes in the human intestine and causes diseases of varying severity from mild colitis (inflammation of the intestines) to severe ulcerative lesions. The pathogen enters the human body through contaminated food or water.

Acute forms of the disease are characterized by fever, symptoms of general intoxication and signs of intestinal damage (abdominal pain, diarrhea, flatulence, tenesmus is possible - painful urge to defecate). In the stool, there is an admixture of mucus in the blood. Characterized by spasm and soreness of the large intestine, enlarged liver. Normally, pathogenic protozoa are not found in feces.

Feces for analysis of enterobiasis (pinworm eggs)

The analysis of feces is done in case of suspicion of enterobiasis (pinworm infection) and before planned hospitalization, as well as when registering a child in child care. Clinical manifestations of enterobiasis are itching in the anal area and intestinal disorders. The causative agent is a pinworm. This is a small nematode (round worm) that lives in the large intestine, and crawling out of the rectum, it lays eggs in the folds at the anus.

Feces for analysis - helminth eggs (worm eggs)

The analysis is done in case of suspicion of infection with helminths and as a preliminary analysis before planned hospitalization in a hospital, as well as when registering a child in children's institutions, etc.

Helminths (worms) are determined, parasitic worms that cause a group of diseases called helminthiases. The most common causes of the disease are round and flatworms, which can be infected through dirty hands and contaminated food. There are two phases of the disease, acute and chronic.

How to collect feces for analysis
How to collect feces for analysis

The first is characterized by a general allergic reaction, fever (rash and swelling on the skin, pain in the joints, swollen lymph nodes, possibly the development of gastrointestinal disorders, symptoms of lung damage, an increase in the size of the liver, spleen. Sometimes severe organ damage develops.

The most common signs of a possible chronic course of helminthiasis are the phenomena of prolonged intoxication, weakness, lethargy, decreased activity, appetite, weight loss, anemia. Periodically, there is a slight (not higher than 38 degrees C) increase in body temperature, stool disorders, unpleasant sensations, heaviness in the right hypochondrium, intolerance to any food products can be observed.

In the chronic phase, changes in metabolic processes in the body are observed, due to the absorption of nutrients by helminths, which causes a deficiency of vitamins, minerals, amino acids and other food components. Changes in the immune system can be the cause of frequent infectious and viral diseases in a child.

Get sick through dirty hands. Pinworm larvae, attaching to the skin, cause inflammation, and mature worms disrupt intestinal functions. The waste products of these worms and, especially, the products of their decay have toxic and allergic effects.

Preparation for analysis

How to collect feces for analysis
How to collect feces for analysis

Sampling should be done in the morning. Do not wash yourself before taking the test. The nurse uses a cotton swab dipped in glycerin to scrape the surface of the perianal folds and lower rectum. The stick is placed in a plastic tube and tightly closed with a lid.

As a result of the analysis, pinworm eggs are not found or found. They are not normally found.

Fecal occult blood tests

The analysis is done if there is a suspicion of bleeding from any part of the gastrointestinal tract. It is used to detect "hidden" blood that is not visible on microscopic examination. It is highly sensitive to hemoglobin, a substance found in red blood cells of erythrocytes.

Before the analysis, meat, liver, fish, apples, bell peppers, spinach, white beans, green onions, tomatoes, all types of green vegetables, turnips, horseradish, beets, blueberries, pomegranates are excluded from the diet in three days - these are foods containing iron, and also foods that stain feces, as well as taking iron-containing medicines.

It is advisable to use a diet: Milk, dairy products, cereals, mashed potatoes, white bread with butter, 1-2 soft-boiled eggs, some fresh fruit. Such food is given within 4-5 days. It is also not recommended to brush your teeth for 2 days because of the possibility of injury to the gums. The stool should be free of enemas and laxatives. For research, you need about 1 teaspoon of feces.

How to collect feces for analysis
How to collect feces for analysis

Normally, latent blood is not detected.

A positive reaction to "latent" blood in the feces is noted when:

  • bleeding from the gums;
  • bleeding from varicose veins of the esophagus, stomach, intestines;
  • ulcerative and inflammatory processes in the stomach, intestines;
  • hemorrhagic diathesis - a group of diseases, the common manifestation of which is hemorrhagic syndrome (a tendency to repetitive, intense, long, most often multiple, bleeding and hemorrhage);
  • polyposis - multiple benign tumors of the mucous membrane of various parts of the intestine;

Coprogram

Feces for analysis are taken for the aggregate description of physical, chemical and microscopic examination. He is appointed to diagnose diseases of the digestive system and assess the results of the treatment. Fecal examination allows you to diagnose:

  • violation of acid-forming and enzymatic [2] functions of the stomach;
  • violation of the enzymatic function of the intestine;
  • violation of the enzymatic function of the pancreas;
  • impaired liver function;
  • the presence of accelerated evacuation from the stomach and intestines;
  • malabsorption in the duodenum and small intestine;
  • inflammatory process in the digestive tract;
  • dysbiosis - a violation of the normal intestinal microflora;
  • ulcerative, allergic, spastic colitis - inflammation of the intestines.

Microscopic examination determines the main elements of feces: muscle fibers, plant fiber, neutral fat, fatty acids and their salts, leukocytes, erythrocytes, intestinal epithelium cells, malignant neoplasm cells, as well as mucus, helminth eggs, protozoa.

Preparation for research

How to collect feces for analysis
How to collect feces for analysis

Cancellation of medications is recommended. It is impossible to carry out scatological studies after an enema. After an X-ray examination of the stomach and intestines, the analysis of feces is shown no earlier than two days later, since this study is carried out using X-ray contrast agents that are excreted in the feces.

The feces for analysis are collected in a disposable plastic container with a sealed lid and a spoon-spatula for sampling or in a clean glass container. Mixing urine with feces should be avoided. The container must be delivered to the laboratory on the same day, and before shipment it must be stored in the refrigerator at a temperature of 3-5 degrees C. For children over 1 year old, the following indicators of the program are characteristic:

Index Value physical and chemical indicators Consistency dense, decorated Colour brown Smell fecal, blurred Reaction neutral Bilirubin is absent Stercobilin present Soluble protein is absent microscopic indicators Muscle fibers small amount / no Neutral fat is absent Fatty acid is absent Fatty acid salts small amount / no Digestible fiber is absent Iodophilic flora is absent Starch is absent Leukocytes is absent Erythrocytes is absent Any crystals is absent

Discoloration is an important diagnostic feature of many diseases. So, with obstructive jaundice, when the flow of bile into the intestines ceases, the feces become discolored. Black tarry stool is a sign of bleeding from the upper digestive tract.

The red color is most often caused by an admixture of unchanged blood during bleeding from the colon. From pathological impurities in the feces, you can find mucus, blood, pus, as well as helminths, etc.

How to collect feces for analysis
How to collect feces for analysis

A large number of muscle and connective tissue fibers (creatorrhea) is evidence of insufficient pancreatic function or a decrease in gastric secretory function. Detection of digested fiber and starch (amilorrhea) is characteristic of diseases of the small intestine.

Detection of neutral fat in feces (steatorrhea) is evidence of insufficient lipolytic function of the pancreas, neutral fat and fatty acids are characteristic of impaired bile secretion.

A large number of leukocytes indicates an inflammatory process in the intestine (dysentery - an infectious disease of the gastrointestinal tract, etc.).

Stool carbohydrate content

The test is mainly used to diagnose lactase deficiency (impaired absorption of lactose and poor tolerance to foods containing milk sugar) in children of the first year of life. Lactase deficiency is primary and secondary. Primary or true lactase deficiency is a congenital enzyme deficiency.

How to collect feces for analysis
How to collect feces for analysis

True lactase deficiency is rare. Secondary lactase deficiency is especially common among children in the first year of life and is often a consequence of intestinal dysbiosis or immaturity of the pancreas.

Secondary lactase deficiency disappears after correction of dysbiosis or with age (transient), and at an older age, milk sugar is normally absorbed. You can confirm or deny lactase deficiency by taking a child's feces for carbohydrate content.

Preparation for research:

Feces for analysis should be collected in a separate clean dish. The amount of material should not be less than a teaspoon of feces. Feces must be delivered to the laboratory within 4 hours from the moment of collection. If the delivery time exceeds 4 hours, then the feces must be frozen at -20 degrees C. Repeated defrosting / freezing is not allowed. Normal Carbohydrate Values ​​in Stool:

  • Children under 1 year old - 0 - 0.25%
  • Children over 1 year old and adults 0%

With an increase in carbohydrate levels, lactase deficiency can be suspected.

Find out more:

  • Analysis for enterobiasis: how it is carried out and how to prepare for it
  • Scraping for enterobiasis: what is it, how is it taken from children and adults
  • Analysis of feces for dysentery: how to take, terms and methods

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