Table of contents:
- What is Trichomoniasis
- Types of trichomoniasis
- How Trichomoniasis gets infected
- Diagnosis of trichomoniasis in women
- Signs of trichomoniasis in women
- Trichomoniasis treatment regimen
- Trichomoniasis - symptoms. Pills and medicines for trichomoniasis
- Trichominiasis and pregnancy
- Treatment of trichomoniasis during pregnancy
- Traditional medicine treatment for trichomoniasis in women
- Why is trichomoniasis dangerous in women?
- Prevention of trichomoniasis in women
Video: Trichomoniasis - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis And Treatment
2023 Author: Riley Dean | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 12:07
Trichomoniasis - the symptoms of which are very unpleasant: vaginal discharge, itching, burning of the genitals, pain when urinating. The disease, the occurrence of which is provoked by Trichomonas, is the simplest flagellated organism. Mostly trichomoniasis is transmitted sexually.
Treatment of trichomoniasis in women should be carried out with drugs according to a certain scheme; it should also be noted that both sexual partners should be involved in the treatment, even if the man has no signs of trichomoniasis.
The content of the article:
- 1 What is trichomoniasis
- 2 Types of trichomoniasis
- 3 How is Trichomoniasis infection
- 4 Diagnosis of trichomoniasis in women
- 5 Signs of trichomoniasis in women
- 6 Treatment regimen for trichomoniasis
- 7 Trichomoniasis - symptoms. Pills and medicines for trichomoniasis
- 8 Trichominiasis and pregnancy
- 9 Treatment of trichomoniasis during pregnancy
- 10 Traditional medicine treatment for trichomoniasis in women
- 11 What is the danger of trichomoniasis in women
- 12 Prevention of trichomoniasis in women
What is Trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis in women is a specific inflammatory lesion of the organs of the urogenital tract due to infection with vaginal Trichomonas. In acute cases, infection is manifested by profuse foul-smelling foamy vaginal discharge, itching in the vulva, cramps and pain in the vagina and urethra, and frequent urination.
With a torpid and chronic course, the symptoms are limited to a slight increase in the amount of vaginal leucorrhoea. Gynecological examination, bacteriological and serological studies are used to make a diagnosis. Treatment is conservative etiotropic with the appointment of nitroimidazole derivatives.
Trichomoniasis - symptoms. Trichomoniasis (trichomoniasis) is the most common urogenital sexually transmitted infection, diagnosed in 65-80% of patients with STIs. Up to 170 million people are infected in the world every year, of which more than half are women of predominantly reproductive age.
It is extremely rare that trichomoniasis is detected in girls before the onset of menarche. In various countries, vaginal Trichomonas is infected from 2 to 40% of the population. The infection is especially dangerous due to the presence of latent carriage and the development of various complications - from severe inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary organs to infertility, miscarriage, premature and complicated childbirth.
Types of trichomoniasis
Today there are the following types of Trichomonas: Urogenital Trichomonas, which causes trichomoniasis; oral Trichomonas, against which periodontal disease, caries and tonsillitis develop; intestinal Trichomonas, it is the cause of inflammatory diseases of the digestive system.
The following forms of trichomoniasis are distinguished: acute form, which is manifested by pronounced clinical symptoms; a chronic form in which the symptoms of the disease are less pronounced and are observed for more than 2 months; carriage - detection of Trichomonas in the body without any clinical symptoms.
How Trichomoniasis gets infected
Trichomonas infection occurs only during sexual intercourse. The incubation period can last up to two weeks. Moreover, saliva in the oral cavity and gastric juice act destructively on them, therefore oral contacts do not lead to infection, unlike syphilis, for example, when chancres (ulcers) are found anywhere, often on the tonsils and tongue.
Often women are interested in whether there is another route of transmission. The contact-household route of infection is not excluded, however, in practice it is extremely rare.
In order to get sick, you must simultaneously use, for example, one towel, linen and other intimate accessories. In this case, the clinical picture of inflammation will not be obvious, more often these are signs of vulvitis - redness, itching of the external genital area.
Any woman can get sick with Trichomonas colpitis. However, more often it is detected and proceeds with complications in the following groups: sexually active - and do not use a condom for contraception; with immunodeficiency states - HIV, hepatitis.
The household route of transmission of infection is possible for little girls, whose parents do not adhere to the distinction when using personal hygiene products. Therefore, if an inflammation of the vulva is found in girls, first of all, it is necessary to examine the mother for genital infections.
Trichomoniasis - symptoms. Trichomoniasis, which is not completely cured, may not give any signs of infection for some time - it will be asymptomatic. Aggravation can be caused by the following factors:
- stress, anxiety;
- serious illness;
- alcoholic beverages;
- medicines to lower immunity (hormones, cytostatics).
Weak alcoholic beverages are sometimes used as a provocative test before a follow-up study after a course of treatment. It is recommended, for example, to drink two glasses of beer several hours before taking control swabs. This increases the likelihood of detecting Trichomonas if they have passed into a latent form.
Diagnosis of trichomoniasis in women
Diagnosis of trichomoniasis is based on the detection of microorganisms in the girl's discharge. To determine the disease and the presence of Trichomonas in the body, carry out: microscopic examination by the Gram method; molecular biological diagnostics of PCR and NASB; microscopic examination of vaginal discharge according to the Romanovsky-Giemsa method.
Trichomoniasis - symptoms. The main diagnostic method is the assessment of the symptoms of the disease during a gynecological examination and the results of the analysis of a smear made from the vagina. After that, the results obtained are confirmed by an even more effective method - PCR diagnostics. The results are then deciphered by the doctor.
Be aware that results can be false positive.
In this case, the diagnosis is deteriorating due to the deterioration of the microflora of the vaginal mucosa. The indicator of useful bifidobacteria also decreases and harmful microorganisms come to replace them.
So, we learned how to treat trichomoniasis in women. But the best thing is not to engage in treatment, but to prevent the disease initially. To do this, you need to avoid casual sexual intercourse - this is the main condition for the prevention of trichomoniasis. Promiscuous intercourse is the main reason why an infection can appear in the body.
Signs of trichomoniasis in women
Trichomoniasis - symptoms in women are more noticeable than in men.
The main features include the following:
- discharge: the classic discharge in women with trichomoniasis is greenish foamy, but this is not always the case. With chronic infection, they may be practically absent (especially in men). If there is another sexually transmitted infection (STI) at the same time, the discharge may be swampy, yellow, purulent, profuse or moderate, with an unpleasant odor. Signs of blood may be found, for example after sexual intercourse. This is due to the fact that with inflammation of the cervical tissue is excessively vulnerable, the slightest touching entails damage, especially against the background of erosion or dysplasia;
- itching and burning: discharge, getting on the mucous membranes of the genitals and skin, causes irritation, itching, pain. When scratching, abrasions appear;
- pain: if the Trichomonas infection is limited only to the vagina and cervix, the pain practically does not bother the woman. But when it spreads to the appendages and the pelvic peritoneum, pulling pains appear in the lower abdomen, which can be given to the sacrum;
- signs of cystitis: the external opening of the urethra and the entrance to the vagina are close. Therefore, Trichomonas freely penetrate into the urinary system, causing signs of cystitis and urethritis - pain, cramps during urination, frequent urge to use the toilet;
- fever: with the generalization of infection, the occurrence of abscesses or peritonitis, fever occurs;
- violation of the menstrual cycle: any inflammatory process of the genital organs leads to dysfunction of the ovaries, which is fraught with delays, smearing acyclic secretions.
Trichomoniasis treatment regimen
Since the symptoms of infection are especially pronounced in women, it is most often they who go to the doctor to begin treatment for trichomoniasis. A positive diagnosis in a woman is always a reason for examination and antibiotic therapy in her partner.
The course of treatment recommended by the doctor is aimed at destroying the causative agent of the disease. For women, the start of treatment starts from the next menstruation. It is after her that 3 cycles of therapy begin. Usually, a complex of drugs is taken, since when infected with Trichomonas, the mucous membrane of the genitourinary system is affected.
Trichomoniasis - symptoms. The main active ingredient is Metronidazole or its analogues. Medicines are used in various forms, the dosage of the drug should be the highest possible in each case. Topical treatment of trichomoniasis is used only in addition to the main drugs.
Vaginal tablets and suppositories act on the vaginal mucosa, although Trichomonas affects both the urethra and the Bartholin glands. Additionally, drugs from the group of antibiotics, antifungal agents, dietary supplements, vitamins are used.
Forms of drugs and treatment procedures: tablets for oral and intravaginal use; suppositories; baths and douching; microclysters; irrigation of the uterine cavity, urethra and bladder with medicinal solutions.
In 90-95% of cases, a sustained cure for infection occurs after taking a loading dose of Metronidazole, taken once. It is possible to use the drug multiple times in courses of 3-5-7 days, which is equivalent in efficiency to a loading dose.
When various drugs are combined, side effects may occur, which must be reported to the attending physician.
If the control analysis after such treatment showed the presence of Trichomonas, it makes no sense to repeat such therapy. An alternative can be the use of Nitazol, Meratin, locally - suppositories Terzhinan, Meratin Combi.
For the prevention of recurrence of trichomoniasis use the vaccine "Solkotrichovak" containing 7x109 lactobacilli in the form of a lyophilisate. The drug, in addition to the preventive one, also has a side effect.
Trichomoniasis - symptoms. Pills and medicines for trichomoniasis
Metronidazole: tablets for oral administration: Metronidazole, Trichopolum, Flagil, Klion;
candles in the vagina: "Klion-D", "Ginokaps", "Metromikon-Neo", "Neo-Penotran";
for intravenous administration: "Metrogyl" - 0.5 g in the form of tablets by mouth 2 times a day;
- in addition, suppositories in the vagina once at night;
in case of disseminated infection, intravenous injections.
Tinidazole: tablets: "Tinidazole", "Fazizin" - once 2 g of the drug (4 tablets).
Clindamycin: vaginal suppositories and ointments: "Dalatsin", "Clindacin";
tablets: "Dalatsin", "Clindamycin" - 300 mg of the drug (suppositories or tablets) once a day for 7-10 days.
Iodine: vaginal suppositories: "Ruvidon", "Povidone-iodine", "Betadine" - 1 suppository 2 times a day.
Hydrogen peroxide: 3% solution for douching - 2 times a day for 10 days.
Chlorhexidine: Hexicon vaginal suppositories; douching solution - One candle once a day for 7-10 days or douching.
Klion D-100 - (combination of 0.1 g of Metronidazole and 0.1 g of Miconazole nitrate) - 1 tablet at night for 10 days;
Neo-Penotran (combination of 0.5 g of Metronidazole and 100 mg of Miconazole nitrate) - 1 suppository 2 times a day for 14 days;
Terzhinan (a combination of 0.2 g Ternidazole, 100 thousand U Nystatin, 0.1 g Neomycin sulfate, 3 mg prednisolone) - 1 suppository at night for 10 days;
Meratin Combi (combination of 0.5 g of Ornidazole, 0.1 g of Neomycin sulfate, 100 thousand units of Nystatin, 3 mg of Prednisolone) - 1 suppository at night for 10 days.
In chronic trichomoniasis, it is advisable to vaccinate with "Solkotrichovak". Three injections must be given 14 days apart. The vaccine is effective for treatment at any time of infection.
In acute course, additional therapy for the cause of the disease is necessary. The course of treatment, the combination of drugs and forms of administration can only be established by a doctor based on the clinical picture of the disease and the presence of complications.
Trichominiasis and pregnancy
Trichomoniasis, according to most doctors, does not belong to those diseases that can have a detrimental effect on the fetus; it does not cause fetal malformations. But, of course, trichomoniasis during pregnancy is an extremely undesirable condition. There are several reasons for this.
The aggressive environment that forms in the vagina of a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis can "melt" the lower pole of the fetal bladder and lead to premature rupture of amniotic fluid, which means miscarriage or premature birth.
Trichomoniasis - symptoms. The probability of contracting trichomoniasis during childbirth is especially high for a newborn girl, which is associated with the peculiarities of her body (the girl has a short urethra, through which Trichomonas can easily penetrate into the bladder).
Trichomonas themselves do not penetrate the fetus through the placenta, but they can serve as a "tram" in which chlamydia, gonococci and other pathogenic microbes rapidly move into the uterine cavity. This is due to the ability of Trichomonas to absorb microorganisms without killing them.
Inside Trichomonas, microbes are protected from antibiotics, they cannot be detected during diagnosis. Often, after the treatment of trichomoniasis, infections that have been treated for a long time or have never been previously detected in a given woman are suddenly detected. In addition, it is possible for a child to become infected when passing through the birth canal affected by Trichomonas.
Treatment of trichomoniasis during pregnancy
Trichomoniasis (also known as trichomoniasis) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world. It is believed that 10% of the world's population is infected with trichomoniasis. According to the WHO, this disease is recorded annually in about 200 million people. Moreover, among the registered sick women there are four times more than men.
The main group of drugs used in the treatment of trichomoniasis are imidazole derivatives (metronidazole, ornidazole, tinidazole, naktsogin, atrican). Drugs in this group are categorically contraindicated before 12 weeks of pregnancy, due to their possible negative effect on the fetus.
Women with trichomoniasis give birth in special observational units. Newborns are treated after examination if this disease is detected. After the end of treatment, all patients undergo control examinations of smears for Trichomonas.
Trichomoniasis - symptoms. After 12 weeks, in some cases, it is possible to use these drugs in short courses. This therapy is less effective than the usual course, and more often gives relapses, but is still necessary during pregnancy.
With this tactic of treatment, the drug load on the body of the mother and fetus is significantly reduced. Up to 12 weeks of pregnancy, treatment is carried out only with local (vaginal) drugs clotrimazole, ginesol, betadia).
For successful treatment of trichomoniasis, it is necessary to start treatment immediately after the detection of the disease, be sure to examine and treat sexual partners, avoid unprotected sexual intercourse during the treatment period, due to the possibility of re-infection.
The first control is carried out immediately after the completion of treatment, the next two - after each menstruation, and in pregnant women - 3 times monthly. 4 weeks after the end of treatment, a PIF (blood test for antibodies) can be used for control. It should be borne in mind that, even after completely curing, you can very easily get infected with it again.
Traditional medicine treatment for trichomoniasis in women
Trichomoniasis - symptoms. In the fight against infection, you can use folk remedies, however, this is a good addition, but not the main treatment. The following are effective recipes that you can easily make at home.
A mixture of herbs: 20 g each of lilac flowers, calendula, bird cherry and the same amount of celandine mix. Pour 300 ml of hot water and let it brew for an hour or two. The resulting solution should be enough for douching once. The course is 10-14 days.
Sea buckthorn oil: for healing, relieving swelling, itching and inflammation with colpitis, sea buckthorn oil, which must be put into the vagina on gauze tampons, will help.
Horseradish root: you should take 20 g, chop thoroughly and pour boiling water over for two hours. Then strain and use the resulting solution for douching at one time. The course is two weeks.
Trichomonas often occur as a mixed infection or alone. The treatment regimen for trichomoniasis for women can differ significantly depending on the severity of inflammation and the presence of pregnancy. Prevention of infection consists in the use of barrier contraception (eg, condoms).
Why is trichomoniasis dangerous in women?
Trichomoniasis is dangerous with the following complications:
- inflammation of the cervix with the development of dysplasia, erosion, polyps;
- the formation of abscesses of the ovaries and fallopian tubes;
- progression to chronic endometritis;
- infertility due to active infection.
Timely detection and treatment of infection is important, as well as prevention of household transmission to young girls.
Prevention of trichomoniasis in women
Trichomoniasis - symptoms. For the prevention of this disease, a number of recommendations must be strictly observed: culture of sexual intercourse; in the presence of inconsistent sexual partners, the use of exclusively barrier contraceptives; high culture of intimate hygiene, excluding the use of underwear and hygiene products of other people; regular medical examinations, which you need to undergo at least six months.
There is a fairly effective method of one-time prophylaxis of trichomoniasis after casual sex without using a barrier contraceptive.
It consists in the introduction of five milliliters of miramistin solution into the vagina and external treatment of the genitals with antiseptics. Doing so will reduce the risk of Trichomonas transmission by 70 percent. But at the same time, doctors strongly recommend avoiding situations where such emergency therapy is needed.
Find out more:
- Trichomoniasis in women - causes, symptoms and treatment
- Signs of trichomoniasis in women - symptoms and treatment