Symptoms Of Worms In Humans

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Symptoms Of Worms In Humans
Symptoms Of Worms In Humans
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Video: Don't Ignore These Early Symptoms Of Parasites In Your Body 2023, February

Symptoms of worms. To date, science knows about 280 types of worms that can develop and live in the human body, parasitizing in various organs and tissues. Worm infestations usually cause significant discomfort and health problems to a person. Symptoms of worms can be very diverse: fever, weakness, indigestion, headache, etc.

The content of the article:

  • 1 Worms - what is it
  • 2 What is helminthiasis (worm diseases) - Symptoms of worms
  • 3 What are they?
  • 4 How common and unsafe are worms
  • 5 Where do worms spread in humans
  • 6 How can you get infected with worms?

    • 6.1 Through soil
    • 6.2 Person to Person
    • 6.3 Through water
  • 7 Symptoms of worms
  • 8 Diagnosis of worms
  • 9 Treatment of worms
  • 10 Folk remedies for the treatment of worms
  • 11 Complications of helminthiasis
  • 12 Prevention of worms

Worms - what is it

Symptoms of worms
Symptoms of worms

Worms are parasites of humans and animals belonging to the class of flat or round worms. Worms have a fairly common structure.

In their own development, worms traditionally go through several stages: testicle - larva - adult. Most of all, human infection with worms occurs when he swallows the eggs of the worms. From the swallowed eggs in the human intestinal tract, larvae quickly hatch, which begin to migrate to the place of their permanent life, where they are transformed into adults. In the process of movement, almost all helminths make true "travel" through the human body.

Only a few parasites (for example, pinworms) hatch from eggs in the intestinal tract, remain there.

Usually, the destruction of tissues and organs and the symptoms caused by larvae and other developing forms of helminths during movement are the most pronounced, in comparison with the symptoms are caused by mature forms of parasites.

In the cavity of the intestinal tract, larvae hatch from ascaris eggs, which, within a couple of hours, enter the blood vessels through the wall of the intestinal tract and are carried into the lungs with blood flow. In the lungs, ascaris larvae grow and mature. The growing larva slowly gnaws into the adjoining bronchi and crawls along them, first into the trachea, and then into the oral cavity, where it is again swallowed and carried away into the intestinal tract.

The roundworm larva, which has again entered the intestinal tract, is transformed into an adult worm. Pulmonary migration of ascaris larvae is manifested by an abundance of symptoms (cough, asthma attacks, an increase in body temperature, an allergic rash on the skin), and the presence of a small number of adult worms in the intestinal tract may not be manifested in any way.

What are helminthiases (worm diseases) - Symptoms of worms

Symptoms of worms
Symptoms of worms

Under the term "helminthiasis" it is customary to mean a number of human diseases, the prerequisite for which are various parasite worms - helminths (another collective name for these parasites - worms).

For helminthiasis, a slow development of symptoms is typical, a chronic course with prolonged remissions (periods of remission).

All helminthiases appear as a result of human infection with eggs, cysts or larvae of parasite worms. Sources of infection for helminthiasis can be sick animals, people suffering from helminthiases, contaminated food and water.

Unlike diseases caused by bacteria, protozoa, or fungi, with helminthiasis, the number of adult helminths (worms) in the body at one point in an infected person does not increase (with the exception of cases of re-infection). This is connected with the fact that the reproduction of worms occurs only outside the human body.

What are they?

Medicine knows more than a hundred varieties of helminths. The following are the most common types of worms:

  1. Pinworms are small worms in the human body that reach 12 mm in length. Diagnose this type of worms in the intestinal mucosa. Parasites enter the body with dust through the respiratory tract and can be easily transmitted from person to person.
  2. Roundworms are large round worms that are more common in the small intestine. Infection of the body occurs through unwashed hands and food. More often roundworms are found in the body of children.
  3. Trichinella - these parasites have round bodies no more than 5 mm in length and excite trichinosis in the body. Larvae and eggs prefer to be in poorly fried meat (wild boar, pork, bear meat). In the human body, Trichinella takes up to 4 days to become an adult, and its life cycle is 40 days. The main purpose of this type of worm is to enter the bloodstream through the intestinal walls and settle in the muscles. Moreover, the muscles of the respiratory and musculoskeletal systems are often affected.
  4. Pork / bovine tapeworm. The length of the body of the parasite is 5-6 meters, and its larvae hide in the meat of large animals (pork, cattle). The disease awakened by these helminths is called teniasis and teniarinhoses. The larvae of both types of tapeworms - Finns, are whitish vesicles attached to the walls of the small intestine. The parasite needs 3 months to reach and form an adult, and the worm develops every day. The total number of segments reaches 2000, the terminal of which freely "furrow" the large intestine. Then the worms leave the body along with the feces through the anus. The most common and obvious symptom of helminthiasis is a disturbed digestive tract, as well as food consumption in large volumes, and the patient does not visually gain weight.
  5. Necator / hookworm. The connection between these parasites is direct, due to the caused ailments and biological characteristics. They live in the duodenum, and due to their small size (10-15 mm) move freely in its environment. Larvae can enter the body only through the skin if a person has come into contact with contaminated soil. A further target of the worms are the lungs along with the digestive tract. They feed only on blood that comes out of the bitten blood vessels. As a result of the vigorous activity of these parasites, blood clotting is disrupted. During the day, adults consume blood in the range of 0.1-0.35 ml.
  6. Echinococcus. In this case, a person acts as an intermediate owner, because wolves, cats, dogs are the final ones. Animals can become infected by their direct contact with contaminated objects or people. As soon as the eggs of the parasite have entered the intestines, larvae with six hooks develop immediately, which are called oncospheres in medicine.
  7. Vlasoglavs - are diagnosed in the stomach of a person. These are thin and rather large worms.

You can determine the type of helminths by seeing what color the worms are in the feces when they come out. Infection occurs through vegetables and meat that have undergone insufficient heat treatment. You can avoid infection by following the rules of food preparation.

How common and unsafe are worms

Symptoms of worms. The data of modern epidemiological studies have revealed that every 4 people around the world are infected with worms. The incidence of infection with worms is significantly higher in children than in adults. In children and adults, worms can become a prerequisite for various acquired diseases of internal organs (gastritis, pancreatitis, enterocolitis, cholecystitis), and from time to time lead to the development of unsafe complications and death.

According to the Global Health Organization and the Global Bank, helminthic diseases are the 4th largest economic harm done among all other diseases and injuries.

In the CIS, there are more than 15 types of worms, of which enterobiasis (about 90% in the group of patients with worm diseases), ascariasis (70%), opisthorchiasis, diphyllobothriasis, trichocephalosis (60%), toxocariasis (60%), hymenolepiasis are more common. As it becomes clear from the statistical data, almost all sick (especially children) are simultaneously infected with several forms of worms.

Where do worms spread in humans

Many believe that worms certainly live in the intestines and for some types of worms this is true. In general, worms can be found in a variety of organs and systems of the human body:

  • all types of tapeworms, whipworms and nematodes "settle" in the large intestine;
  • trematodes affect the liver and gallbladder;
  • the larvae of the pork tapeworm can be carried with the bloodstream to all organs - the subcutaneous fatty tissue, the eye chamber, and the vessels in the muscles can be affected.

How can you get infected with worms?

How do worms get into the human body? There are 4 main sources of helminth eggs in the body:

Geohelminthiasis - through the soil, (and then water), which contains mature eggs of many helminths, which penetrate the ground with human or animal feces, as well as through direct contact with animals and through the transfer of eggs by flies to food

Contact - from person to such well-known and most common worms as pinworms are transmitted to a person, this is the highest risk of infection with

Biohelminthiasis - when eating raw, semi-raw or slightly heat-treated meat (pork, beef) or fish infected with helminths (sushi, shashlik, dried fish, lard with veins of meat, etc.)

Some parasites enter the body through insect bites

The main mechanism of any infection is most often oral-fecal, that is, a person simply swallows the eggs of the worm together with food, water, less often some helminthic infestations occur when infected insects bite. It is clear with uncooked meat and raw fish, but how can you get infected with worms by contact and everyday life and through the soil?

Through the soil

After any contact with the ground, sand, you should not just wash your hands, but thoroughly clean your nails, it is better to have short-cut nails, especially for children. Food products that grow in the ground - vegetables, herbs, fruits, berries, mushrooms, everything related to the ground requires thorough washing under running water and scalding with boiling water. Pets, primarily dogs and cats, walking on the street, bring a lot of sewage into the house, and children playing with them are at the maximum risk of infection, the animal can easily infect it with any kind of helminths. Flies are also the main carriers of helminths, being in public toilets, places where agricultural livestock live, flies then calmly sit on food, spreading eggs on their wings and legs.

From person to person

With pinworms, infection of others occurs very easily. When a female pinworm crawls out of the intestines at night, she lays about 5,000 eggs near the anus, which causes severe itching, the child, combing the itchy place, sows them on his hands, nails, panties, bed linen. Without washing his hands at once, hundreds of eggs remain on all the objects he touches - doorknobs, clothes, food, toys. Further, the process of infection is understandable, eggs also settle on the hands of another child or adult using these objects, and without washing their hands before eating, they enter the mouth of a healthy person.

Through the water

A huge number of worm eggs fall into open water bodies, into well water. Therefore, those who live in rural areas or in the country should use a bactericidal filter and be sure to boil water; it is also dangerous to swallow water when swimming in open water.

Everyone knows that worms are mainly a problem for children. Firstly, because they are most susceptible to the development of helminthiasis, since the protective barriers in the child's body are not properly formed, the acidity of the stomach is lower than that of an adult. Secondly, preschool children, mastering the world, taste all the surrounding objects not only with their hands, but also with their taste. And parents, with all their might, can teach their child to strictly follow the rules of personal hygiene, without reminders, only by 3-6 years, which puts at risk of infection (pinworms) not only for the baby himself, but also for all family members.

It should be remembered that no worms can reproduce and multiply in the human body, each species has its own period of time after which they die, for example, in pinworms it is only a few weeks, in ascaris about a year. Eggs laid by adults must leave the body either with feces, or (in the case of pinworms) on the skin near the anus, into the external environment, into the soil, and only then, having matured outside the human body and getting into it again, they begin to activate and parasitize.

Symptoms of worms

Symptoms of worms
Symptoms of worms

The development of helminthiasis usually occurs in two stages: acute - from two, three weeks to two months and chronic - from several months to many years.

The acute stage coincides with the time of introduction and development of the parasite and is manifested mainly by an immune response to foreign antigens, allergic reactions. The symptoms of this stage of helminthiasis are similar when different types of parasites are introduced.

The chronic stage is very diverse: depending on the location of the worms, their number and way of life, disturbances appear in the work of a variety of organs and systems. Embedding in the metabolic system, consuming the substances necessary for itself, the parasite leads to disorders, manifested by disorders of digestion, absorption of vitamins, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and minerals. The waste products of worms lead not only to suppression of the normal intestinal microflora, but also reduce immunity, contributing to the development of chronic bacterial infections, reducing the effectiveness of preventive vaccinations.

The increased risk of malignant tumors is associated with a negative effect on the immune system and enhanced processes of cell division (repair) in damaged tissues.

The first signs of the development of helminthiasis can appear from 2-3 days (with ascariasis), up to 1.5 years (with filariasis). More often this period is 2-3 weeks. At the onset of the disease, skin rashes, swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver and spleen, pain in muscles and joints appear. For some helminthiasis, specific signs are characteristic, for example, jaundice for opisthorchiasis (hepatic fluke) or fever, muscle pain, swelling of the face and eyelids for trichinosis.

In the chronic phase, the presence of single specimens of worms proceeds practically without any symptoms, an exception may be the presence of large specimens, for example, the tapeworm, ascaris. In the case of a more massive infection, the symptoms of helminthiases consist of digestive disorders (nausea, bloating, abdominal pain, loose stools) and some specific signs. With enterobiasis, for example, itching in the anus, intensifying in the evening and at night.

A special place is occupied by helminthiasis with the development of cysts (fluid formations in the membrane): echinococcosis, alveococcosis, cysticercosis. Even large cysts may not manifest themselves in any way, but their suppuration or rupture lead to dire consequences such as: anaphylactic shock, peritonitis, purulent pleurisy.

Helminthiasis may be accompanied by symptoms of vegetative-vascular asthenia and neurotic conditions.

Let's consider in more detail the most common special cases of helminthiasis.

Diagnostics of worms

Symptoms of worms
Symptoms of worms

Diagnostics of worms is carried out by identifying eggs and larvae of helminths. The biological substrate for the study of worms is feces, urine, sputum, duodenal contents and bile, mucus, rectal and perianal scrapings, muscle tissue, blood. Taking into account that most of all the parasites are localized in the gastrointestinal tract, they usually examine the feces (feces).

Isolated helminths and their fragments (segments, scraps of strobila, heads) are detected by macroscopic methods, eggs and larvae are detected by microscopy.

Symptoms of worms. In the acute phase of helminthiasis, as well as diseases caused by tissue parasites or larvae (toxocariasis, trichinosis, cysticercosis, echinococcosis), serological methods are used, such as the reaction of complement binding, indirect agglutination, immunofluorescence, lysis agglutination, and the rest.

Also, with some helminthic invasions (echinococcosis, cysticercosis), such instrumental studies as ultrasound, computed tomography, radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic methods, including endobiopsy, are of fundamental importance.

Treatment of worms

During the acute period of helminthic diseases, desensitization and detoxification are of primary importance. The sick are prescribed antiallergic drugs: suprastin, claritin.

For the treatment of helminthiasis, highly effective drugs have been developed, such as pyrantel, mebendazole, albendazole, carbendacim.

With enterobiasis, the main condition for successful treatment is the simultaneous deworming of all family members (or the children's team), strict hygienic measures and repeated administration of drugs 10-14 days after the first.

In case of fascioliasis, it is better not to use ivermectin due to its low efficiency; triclabendazo is used to treat this disease.

For the treatment of digestive cestodoses (genniidosis and diphyllobothriasis), praziquantel 20 mg per kg of patient weight is used once, with hymenolepiasis, the product is taken 10 days later, with cerebral cysticercosis, foreign sources advise using this product at a dose of 50 mg / kg 3 times a day for 14 days.

Folk remedies for the treatment of worms

Symptoms of worms
Symptoms of worms

Traditional methods of treatment include medicinal plants with anthelmintic, laxative effects. Even in ancient times, healers recommended using elecampane and celandine juice to expel worms. Carrots and carrot juice also have anthelmintic effects. Often in recipes of traditional medicine, you can find walnuts, pomegranates, mint, and even more often - garlic in the form of a food component or enemas. A decoction of wormwood is used in the form of enemas or inside. Pumpkin seeds are a recognized medicine for worms. In folk medicine, the intake of medicinal plants is often combined with saline laxatives. Although the effect of medicinal plants is not so high, they may well serve as a prophylaxis or addition to the traditional treatment of helminthiasis.

Complications of helminthiasis

Complications of helminthiasis are associated, first of all, with the mechanical effect of the parasite on the organ, tissue destruction sometimes leads to fatal dysfunctions of the affected organ.

The attachment of bacterial infections in places of mechanical damage is a frequent complication that masks the presence of the parasite in the body.

For impressionable people, the type of parasite (for example, when expelled) can cause serious psychological trauma, requiring long-term rehabilitation treatment.

Prevention of worms

It contains the timely identification and treatment of sick people and animals, compliance with personal hygiene measures (washing hands before meals, thorough washing of food products, painstaking heat treatment of food, especially meat and fish).

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