Table of contents:
- What is enterobiasis
- Worm infestation - sources of risk
- The causes of enterobiasis in adults and children
- Infection routes
- Symptoms of the disease in adults and children
- Scraping for enterobiasis: when to take
- Laboratory tests for parasitic diseases
- What is an enterobiasis scraping test
- What are the symptoms of enterobiasis scraping
- Scraping analysis: as taken in adults
- Scraping for enterobiasis: how is it taken from children
- How to prepare for the delivery of scraping for enterobiasis
- How to properly collect material for research
- How long to wait for the result of scraping for enterobiasis
- What to do if a disease is detected
Video: Scraping Analysis For Enterobiasis: What Is It, How To Prepare And How It Is Taken
Enterobiasis is a disease caused by pinworms. The pinworm is a small white worm that is 10 mm long for the female and 5 mm for the male. In the female, the posterior end is pointed, and in the male it is somewhat twisted on the ventral side. Around the mouth opening on the front of the body of the pinworm is a vesicle - a small swelling with which the worm is attached to the intestinal wall. Pinworm eggs have an oval shape, flattened on one side and convex on the other, and a colorless shell. For pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis, human pinworm), the only host is a person, that is, their entire life cycle is carried out in the human body.
Pinworm infection can occur at any age. Children, as a rule, suffer from helminthic invasions more often than adults, which is due to the peculiarities of children's immunity. To identify pinworms in the body, various diagnostic methods are used, most often it is a scraping test for enterobiasis. The method is widespread, it is notable for its availability and quick results. Today we will talk about the features of taking tests for enterobiasis.
The content of the article:
- 1 What is enterobiasis
- 2 Worm infestation - sources of risk
- 3 Causes of enterobiasis in adults and children
- 4 Ways of infection
- 5 Symptoms of the disease in adults and children
- 6 Scraping for enterobiasis: when it is necessary to take
- 7 Laboratory tests for parasitic diseases
- 8 What is a scraping test for enterobiasis
- 9 For what symptoms is scraping done for enterobiasis
- 10 Analysis-scraping: as taken in adults
- 11 Scraping for enterobiasis: how they take from children
- 12 How to prepare for the delivery of scraping for enterobiasis
- 13 How to properly collect material for research
- 14 How long to wait for the result of scraping for enterobiasis
- 15 What to do if a disease is detected
What is enterobiasis
The emergence of enterobiasis is provoked by pinworms. These parasitic worms reach a size of no more than 10 millimeters. It was the pointed tip that gave pinworms such a name.
Parasites of different colors are observed: from white and yellow to black and dark brown. This disease is also called "dirty hands disease", as infection most often occurs in this way. The pathogenesis of enterobiasis is as follows:
- Pinworm eggs enter the human body through the respiratory tract or the mouth opening.
- After about two weeks in the intestine, the larvae transform into adults capable of reproduction.
- Parasites are localized in the areas of the small and large intestine.
- At night, female helminths emerge from the anus to lay eggs. When laying, parasites secrete a fluid that causes itching, irritation and redness of the skin.
- After laying the eggs, female pinworms die.
For an infected child or adult, the night of lay can be particularly uncomfortable. In the morning, a person feels severe itching, which provokes him to scratch the anus. Thus, re-infection most often occurs in children who have a habit of biting their nails or licking their fingers.
Worm infestation - sources of risk
In the warm season, children spend a lot of time outdoors, play in the sand, swim in ponds, eat fresh vegetables and fruits, not always having the opportunity or desire to wash their hands with soap and water. The very little ones are actively exploring the world, they certainly want to taste every item. Flies and other insects play an important role in infection with worms. They transfer the eggs of the worms to food.
The risk of infection increases if the family has a pet. After all, helminths parasitizing in dogs and cats can be the causative agents of human diseases. According to statistics, every fifth Russian family has a dog and every third has a cat.
Infected animals usually do not have symptoms, or the owners simply do not associate them with helminthiasis. Eating ice cream together with a four-legged friend, kissing on a wet nose and holding tight hugs - how to prevent a child from showing love to our smaller brothers?
The causes of enterobiasis in adults and children
Before analyzing the signs and symptoms of pathology in children and adults, you need to find out where the worms come from in the body, and how the scraping is taken. Pinworm eggs are the cause of helminthic infestation. Pinworm eggs penetrate the intestines and parasitize in all its parts, causing unpleasant symptoms for a long time and disrupting the functionality of the body.
During initial infection, the eggs may not take root and leave the intestines naturally. The incubation period is 20 - 30 days. In this case, a scraping test for enterobiasis is not needed.
With a secondary infection, the eggs take root, provoking the development of enterobiasis. It is important to know that pinworms parasitize only in the human body, therefore pinworms cannot be infected from animals. The disease develops more often in children, because worms appear due to non-compliance with hygiene rules.
Most often, the cause of pinworms in adults and children is dirty hands. The eggs of the worms that are on the street, on dirty hands, enter the house, and from there - into the human body, and only a smear for enterobiasis will show their presence.
For humans, there are several ways of infection, the main one is eating poorly cooked or fried meat of animals and fish. The most common ways of transmission of pinworms are contact, that is, from person to person. Contaminated water and food can also cause helminths. Some parasites enter the body through the skin.
Prevention of worms implies: hygiene of the living quarters and body, thorough washing of fruits, vegetables, etc. In addition, at least 1-2 times a year, it is necessary to do a scraping for enterobiasis in order to detect the disease in time and learn how to get rid of worms.
Symptoms of the disease in adults and children
If a child has been diagnosed with worms, then with a 100% probability the rest of the family also have them, and a scraping is needed to detect these parasites. The worm spreads by autoinvasion, when the body is self-infected with pinworm eggs. The female pinworm travels down the intestines to the anus and lays eggs around it, causing severe itching.
The infected person scratches the place of accumulation of eggs and spreads them at home on all surfaces. Therefore, if the worms were found in a child, then it would not hurt adults to drink anthelmintic drugs for prevention.
You can understand that a person has worms by the following symptoms:
- decrease in the protective functions of the immune system;
- itching in the anus;
- causeless rash and allergies;
- pain in the small and large intestines;
- diarrhea and constipation;
- the presence of adults and eggs in the feces.
Scraping for enterobiasis: when to take
The symptoms of enterobiasis should be a good reason to see your doctor for advice. This pathology is very common in our country, so everyone can become infected with it.
Infection can occur when the following factors are present:
- the use of insufficiently thermally processed meat and fish products;
- neglect of the rules of personal hygiene;
- the presence of bad habits: biting off nails, licking fingers. Most often, this is how babies become infected;
- sharing household items with an infected person, as well as close bodily contact (handshakes, hugs);
- eating poorly washed vegetables and fruits, especially in the summer, when there is a risk that insects have sat on the food;
- drinking untreated water from natural sources.
Weak immunity contributes to infection. It is believed that in the presence of symptoms of pathology in a child, parents also need to be tested, since this disease is transmitted through the household.
The disease has an incubation period that lasts from 12 days to two weeks. It is after this period of time after infection that the first signs of the disease begin to appear:
- there is itching and discomfort in the anal area after a bowel movement;
- there is discomfort and pain in the gastrointestinal tract;
- gas formation increases;
- food is poorly digested, which causes constipation and diarrhea;
- the color of the skin of the genitals and excretory organs changes;
- rashes on the skin;
- inflammatory processes, infections of the genitourinary system (thrush, urethritis);
- for babies, you can often observe an increased interest in the genital area and anus.
Laboratory tests for parasitic diseases
Laboratory diagnostics is the main method for identifying the type of invasion, which makes it possible to answer the question of how to treat the disease and how to get rid of worms.
Having received a referral, you can easily contact the INVITRO laboratory, where for a small price you can purchase a set of products for taking the material, including a container for scraping. They will explain to you how to take a scraping test, how long the study takes.
Laboratory diagnostics is the main method for identifying the type of invasion, which makes it possible to answer the question of how to treat the disease
A common method of analysis is smear microscopy. The scraping is taken without any specific preparation, there is no need to carry out a toilet in the anus.
In the analysis of blood in most cases with helminthiasis, eosinophilia, leukocytosis are determined.
What is an enterobiasis scraping test
Analysis-scraping of feces for enterobiasis - detection of pinworm eggs (helminths, the clinical manifestations of which are itching in the anal area and intestinal disorders).
Enterobiasis is a disease caused by small parasitic worms - pinworms. The pinworms do not exceed 1 cm in length. Usually one end of this worm is pointed (hence the name), and the other is rounded. The color of parasites can vary from whitish or yellow to dark or even black.
Live pinworms can crawl or wriggle. Pinworms are nocturnal: it is at night that females enter the rectum and onto the skin around the anus, causing discomfort and itching, lay eggs in the folds of the skin and die.
Infection occurs through dirty hands or contaminated objects. A child, scratching or touching the skin in the perineum, contaminates the hands with eggs of worms. Infection can also occur when the hands are contaminated from bedding or underwear, where eggs get from the body of a sick person. Flies and cockroaches have been proven to play a role in transferring pinworm eggs.
Re-infections through the anus are possible, when individuals matured to the larval stage move from the skin to the intestines. Enterobiasis is very common and is considered the most common infection in the world. In some children's groups, up to 100% of children are infected with pinworms.
What are the symptoms of enterobiasis scraping
- Suspected infestation with pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis);
- "Barrier" analysis-scraping (during hospitalization, registration of a medical book, a certificate to the pool, etc.).
The period from infection to the onset of symptoms with enterobiasis is 12 to 14 days. This is the time it takes for pinworms to reach sexual maturity. The main signs of the disease are itching or discomfort in the anus, redness of the skin around the anus or in the perineum, especially after stool, an increased interest in the child's genitals, masturbation.
In girls, in addition, pinworms can crawl into the genital tract, causing inflammatory and infectious diseases (vulvovaginitis, urethritis, thrush).
The child becomes excitable in the evening, very moody, cannot fall asleep at night for a long time, sleeps restlessly - often wakes up, screams in his sleep, cries, rushes about in bed (while maintaining normal daytime sleep). Such symptoms may not occur every day if there are few worms in the intestines.
But when the number of parasites increases, the discomfort and the described symptoms can become permanent. In addition, pinworms, like any other focus of chronic infection, can cause disruption of the normal functioning of the intestines (abdominal pain, increased gas production - flatulence, constipation or diarrhea, indigestion, etc.), allergic reactions, intoxication (lethargy, increased fatigue, irritability, teeth grinding), lead to intestinal dysbiosis.
Scraping analysis: as taken in adults
Adults can perform scraping both in the clinic and at home. In order to take a scraping test yourself, you need to purchase a special kit at the pharmacy or use a cotton swab, saline solution and a sterile container.
Enterobiasis analysis-scraping how to take at home:
- Scraping is done in the morning before urination and bowel movements.
- Do not wash for several hours before scraping.
- To take the material, it is necessary to moisten the ear stick in saline or ordinary water if it is not available.
- Then the ear stick must be carefully drawn along the folds of the anus.
- Place the obtained sample in a sterile container and take it to the hospital for further research.
Usually, the result is reported within two to three days.
Scraping for enterobiasis: how is it taken from children
The collection of material must be carried out in a medical institution or a nurse's office in educational institutions. Scraping is usually done in the morning. A few hours before the procedure, you should not wash the child in order to get the most reliable result.
In order to take a scraping test for the presence of pinworms in the child's body, the health worker takes the following steps:
- The tape, on which a special adhesive solution is applied, is applied to the anal area and carefully glued to collect as much of the necessary material as possible.
- Adhesive tape is glued to the glass and signed.
- The scraping analysis is sent to the laboratory, where it is stored at a temperature of no more than eight degrees.
The procedure is completely painless, so it can be done to children several times without hindrance. For a more complete picture, it is recommended to take a scraping test three times within a short period of time. This is due to the fact that pinworms do not always lay eggs, for which the scraping is examined.
How to prepare for the delivery of scraping for enterobiasis
The diagnosis of enterobiasis is beyond doubt if pinworms are found. They can be seen in the evening or at night in the anus or on folds of skin or on bedding. Sometimes you can see worms in the feces (usually this indicates a large number of them).
Scraping for enterobiasis - a study to detect pinworm eggs (swab from the folds of skin around the anus or sticking a sticky cellophane tape) may not "detect" the disease if there was no oviposition the day before.
Therefore, such an analysis-scraping must be taken in the morning without washing the child, just after such a night, when he could not sleep for a long time, he slept restlessly.
It is advisable, if the result is negative, to repeat the scraping several times within 1 - 2 weeks, since even if all recommendations are followed, there remains a significant chance of not detecting worm eggs in the analysis.
With a serious suspicion of enterobiasis, treatment can be carried out even if pinworms or their eggs are not found.
The material can be taken in various ways:
- For analysis for enterobiasis, scraping is made from the perianal folds in the morning, before bowel movements, in women, before urination with an ear stick moistened with water (preferably in saline). The material obtained during scraping is placed in a special container (for urine) and delivered within 2 hours.
- Apply a piece of adhesive tape to the perianal area, then attach the tape to clean, degreased glass and deliver it to the laboratory in this form.
Before being sent to the laboratory, the material should be stored in a refrigerator at 4-8 ° C.
A 3-fold study is recommended.
How to properly collect material for research
In the morning, before defecation and holding the toilet of the genitals with a cotton swab dipped in glycerin, make a scraping from the surface of the folds around the anus. Place the stick in a plastic tube and close the lid tightly.
Before being sent to the laboratory, the material must be stored in a refrigerator at a temperature of 4 - 80 C. The material must be delivered to the laboratory on the day of the analysis. The scraping analysis takes 1 working day.
How long to wait for the result of scraping for enterobiasis
You can find out the result for scraping enterobiasis within a day. The material is handed over several times in order to accurately confirm the result. An analysis-scraping for fecal enterobiasis is done in the morning, so you can find out the result on the same day.
It is necessary to correctly collect a scraping test for enterobiasis several times within 10 days. How long to wait for the result depends on which diagnostic method was used.
If you do a scraping once, then it may show a false result, therefore, to confirm the diagnosis, you need to collect tests twice. You can also make a correct smear at home. It is better to do tests for a child in a polyclinic.
What to do if a disease is detected
If pinworms are found in the collected material, it is necessary to follow a number of rules for the treatment to be successful:
- Isolate a person from the team to prevent new infections.
- Cut your nails short. This will serve as a good prevention of self-infection.
- Observe the rules of personal hygiene: wash yourself twice a day, wash your hands after eating, visiting the street, touching pets.
- Change linen in the morning and in the evening, and sheets - several times a week, after ironing them with an iron (preferably at the highest temperature).
Find out more:
- Scraping - analysis of feces for enterobiasis: how to prepare and where it is carried out
- Analysis of feces for enterobiasis: how to prepare and take
- Scraping for enterobiasis: what is it, how is it taken from children and adults