Table of contents:
- What is enterobiasis
- Pathogenesis during enterobiasis
- Symptoms of enterobiasis - ways of infection
- Diagnosis of enterobiasis
- Symptoms of enterobiasis - causes of enterobiasis
- Symptoms of enterobiasis
- A smear for enterobiasis: how to prepare and pass it correctly
- What determines the analysis of feces for enterobiasis
- Enterobiasis symptoms - how to treat enterobiasis
- Complications of enterobiasis
- Prevention of enterobiasis
Video: Symptoms Of Enterobiasis: Signs Of Infection And Treatment Methods
Enterobiasis is an infectious disease that develops in humans due to the penetration of worms into the body - pinworms. Most often, the symptoms of enterobiasis are similar to the general manifestations of helminthic invasions: it can be abdominal pain, nausea, itching near the anus, headaches, the appearance of a feeling of fatigue.
The content of the article:
- 1 What is enterobiasis
- 2 Pathogenesis during enterobiasis
- 3 Symptoms of enterobiasis - ways of infection
- 4 Diagnosis of enterobiasis
- 5 Symptoms of enterobiasis - causes of enterobiasis
- 6 Symptoms of enterobiasis
- 7 A smear for enterobiasis: how to prepare and correctly pass
- 8 What determines the analysis of feces for enterobiasis
- 9 Symptoms of enterobiasis - how to treat enterobiasis
- 10 Complications of enterobiasis
- 11 Prevention of enterobiasis
What is enterobiasis
Enterobiasis is a common helminthiasis caused by pinworms and is characterized by intestinal damage, severe itching around the anus and severe allergization of the patient's body. This parasitic disease is more common in children and is extremely easily transmitted through dirty hands, which is why enterobiasis is often called “dirty hands disease”.
The pinworm is a small, grayish-white roundworm about 1 cm long, one end of the helminth is twisted, the other spindle-pointed. Pinworms parasitize in the human small intestine, in its lower parts, where there are enough nutrients for the helminth that do not need to be digested.
The total life span of the parasite is, on average, 3-4 weeks and can reach 75 days, and then the male pinworms die. For laying eggs, sexually mature females descend into the rectum and emerge on the surface of the skin of the perianal region, perineum and thighs. This usually happens at night, when, for physiological reasons, the pulses that close the anus relax and it is easier for the helminth to get out. Having laid eggs, females also die. With such a short life cycle of pinworms, the disease can last for years, due to the ease of re-infection, or rather self-infection.
The source of the invasion is a sick person. Pinworm eggs, laid on his skin, fall on bedding, on household items, on the floor, are carried by flies on the surface of open foods, kitchen utensils. After 4-6 hours, they are ready to give life to new helminths. The severe itching that accompanies the disease forces you to scratch the egg-laying sites.
Eggs fall on hands, clog under the nails. With dirty hands, they are brought back into the mouth. Infection is facilitated by violation of the rules of personal and intimate hygiene, bad habits, for example, biting nails, pencils. Children become infected even more easily than adults. A small child crawls on the floor, pulls toys and other objects of interest to his mouth, contaminated with helminth eggs. Sometimes adults give the playing child food, for example, cookies or a crouton, without knowing that this contributes to the child's self-infection.
Once in the mouth, pinworms are swallowed with food or saliva and end up in the digestive tract. Having reached the small intestine, they stick to its walls, and sometimes even penetrate it. This leads to the occurrence of punctate hemorrhages, inflammation and erosion on the intestinal mucosa. The process of absorption of nutrients and vitamins is disrupted. The products of metabolism and decay of dead pinworms, getting into the bloodstream, are carried throughout the body, causing poisoning of tissues and organs and triggering allergic processes.
Symptoms of enterobiasis. The immune system is activated to fight the parasite and its toxins and begins to produce antibodies. Since a large amount of toxins is excreted through the skin, with enterobiasis, allergic skin reactions in the form of urticaria often occur. Female pinworms, in search of a place for laying eggs, can crawl into the female genital organs, carrying on their bodies a huge number of microorganisms from the digestive tract.
This is especially dangerous for little girls in whom the protective mechanisms of the vagina have not yet been formed due to age reasons. Enterobiasis in this case can be accompanied by inflammation of the vulva and vagina, which can lead to rather unpleasant consequences for the child. In addition, pinworms can climb into the appendicular process of the colon and cause the development of appendicitis. Once in the pockets (crypts) of the rectum, they can cause cryptitis. Pinworms can contribute to the development of pyelonephritis cystitis, bedwetting, masturbation.
Pathogenesis during enterobiasis
The life cycle of the pinworm does not depend on the climatic conditions of the area, therefore enterobiasis is common in all latitudes of the world where humans exist, and a high level of infestation by pinworms is recorded in many countries.
The only source of pinworm infestation is the infested person. The route of infection is oral. A person becomes infected by swallowing eggs. Fingers contaminated with pinworm eggs play an important role in the transmission of the invasion. Enterobiasis is correctly considered a disease of dirty hands. Due to the intolerable itching associated with the crawling of female pinworms from the rectum and their movement, the invasive contaminates the hands when scratching.
With dirty hands, helminth eggs are carried onto other parts of the body - the skin of the abdomen, thighs, face, and also fall on underwear and bedding, and when shaken, they rise with dust and settle on household items, floor, furniture, creating conditions for the patient's self-infection, - reinvasion and for widespread invasion of others.
PS Symptoms of enterobiasis. When studying various objects of the external environment, pinworm eggs were found on dishes, toys, tables, desks, money, on food, where they fell from dirty hands and with dust. Flies play a role in the spread of pinworm eggs.
The pathogenesis is based on the mechanical effect of helminths on the intestinal mucosa, associated with irritation of mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors during their fixation and movement. Irritation of the ileocecal region leads to reflex disturbance of the motor and secretory functions of the digestive tract organs, and as a consequence - the possibility of developing gastritis, gastroduodenitis, enteritis.
Individual individuals of female helminths can penetrate deep into the mucous membrane 2/3 of their body length, as a result of which an inflammatory reaction develops around them, granulomas are formed, consisting of eosinophils, lymphocytes, macrophages. The severity of the pathological process depends on the intensity and duration of the invasion.
Even after three times DPT inoculations, 18% of children lack anti-diphtheria antibodies, and 14.5% acquire them in very low titers. In connection with these data, an important conclusion is made that in order to achieve a high level of effectiveness of vaccination against diphtheria, it is necessary to free children from invasion before it is carried out.
The presence of pinworms leads to disruption of the normal composition of the intestinal microbial flora. Noteworthy is the fact that dysbiosis and the prevalence of pathogenic microbial flora in the large intestine in the presence of invasion is recorded 4.5 times more often when compared with non-invasive children.
Many observations confirm the aggravating effect of enterobiasis, like other helminthiases, on the course of pregnancy, causing toxicosis, dermatoses and other pathologies. Given the high contagiousness of the invasion, one cannot fail to foresee a third of its significance in terms of possible infection of newborns in the postpartum period, lactation period.
Symptoms of enterobiasis - ways of infection
The main reason for the appearance of pinworms is non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene. However, adults rarely sin this. They are used to washing their hands, fruits and vegetables, so who infects them in this case?
In fact, pinworms can appear after simply shaking hands with a source of infection, touching a doorknob, and various other objects. Where do the pinworms come from? Usually - from the hands of those who are the carrier. And very often small children play this role.
As mentioned above, pinworms lay their eggs in the anus of the owner. This happens almost always at night, when a person is asleep and does not control his actions. Eggs attached to the skin begin to irritate it, thereby causing unbearable itching. To get rid of the unpleasant sensation, the person begins to comb the affected area, which leads to the ingestion of eggs on his hands.
Symptoms of enterobiasis. The consequences of this are easy to imagine - any surface that he has to touch will be infected. This pathway allows pinworms to travel from one organism to another with incredible ease.
However, there is another possibility of transfer - pinworms do not cause enterobiasis in their host, but aggravate when the laid eggs get back into the same organism. As a result, the number of parasites is many times greater. Knowing what pinworms appear from, you can try to avoid infection and aggravation of the condition.
Symptoms of enterobiasis. The fight against enterobiasis is often ineffective, if you do not carry out therapeutic measures at once for all family members, including four-legged pets. The parasite does not develop in their organisms, but this does not prevent them from being active carriers.
Diagnosis of enterobiasis
- Analysis of complaints of the disease (itching around the anus, mainly at night, abdominal pain, etc.);
- epidemiological history (identification of the fact of enetrobiosis in family members, other children in school or kindergarten);
- microscopic examination of scrapings from the perianal region to identify pinworm eggs. It is carried out in the morning or afternoon after sleep, but before washing. To make a diagnosis, a scraping is taken three times with an interval of 2-3 days;
- consultation of an infectious disease specialist is also possible.
Symptoms of enterobiasis - causes of enterobiasis
- In most cases, the source of infection is a person with enterobiasis. The eggs become infectious 4-6 hours after laying. If the rules of personal hygiene are not followed, they fall on household items, linen. In the future, they are swallowed again either by the sick themselves or by healthy people - this is how the disease spreads;
- helminth eggs are also carried by flies;
- infection is possible by swallowing water containing the pathogen;
- the possibility of infection by inhalation of eggs with dust is not excluded;
- enterobiasis is widespread in sanitary unfavorable regions;
- the disease often occurs and spreads rather quickly in children's groups (kindergartens, among children of primary school age).
Symptoms of enterobiasis
The symptoms of enterobiasis are:
itching around the anus (mostly at night); abdominal pain; loss of appetite; nausea; dry mouth. After 2-3 days, all these symptoms disappear, but with repeated swallowing of the eggs of the pathogen and, as a result, infection, these symptoms may resume after 3-4 weeks
- Symptoms of enterobiasis - in the case of prolonged presence of the parasite in the human body, the following are possible: severe pain in the abdomen, reminiscent of pain in appendicitis; tenesmus (painful false urge to defecate with almost complete absence of feces); flatulence (bloating); loose, frequent stools; scratching in the perianal area;
- neurological symptoms: headache; dizziness; decreased memory, performance.
A smear for enterobiasis: how to prepare and pass it correctly
To be tested for pinworms in an adult, you must get referrals from an infectious disease doctor. Most medical institutions have laboratories in which such studies are carried out, or you can visit a private laboratory and take an analysis for a fee.
Symptoms of enterobiasis - if a person suspects that he has pinworms, the symptoms of which are very pronounced and cannot be confused with anything else, he should consult a doctor, he will prescribe an analysis for enterobiasis, how to take it will also be prompted in the clinic.
The procedure is carried out in the laboratory in the morning. It is necessary not to forget that it is impossible to wash off before the study, so as not to wash off pinworm eggs with soap, since in this case the results may not be reliable enough.
During the procedure, the patient does not experience discomfort and painful sensations; a smear is taken with adhesive tape. It is undesirable to perform an act of defecation before passing the test, because this can also lead to distortion of the results.
Symptoms of enterobiasis. To identify enterobiasis, the analysis can be done at home, more precisely, to collect material for research, it is very convenient when it is impossible to come to the laboratory in the morning hours. For this, a cotton swab is taken, dipped into a container with glycerin. After that, she treats the area of the skin near the anus. Then the stick must be placed in a sterile container and taken to a medical facility.
As a rule, the research results are ready after 2-3 days. If the analysis was carried out in a laboratory at a polyclinic, then they go directly to the attending physician, if in a private one, then the patient receives them in his own hands.
The results of the study are considered reliable only for 10 days, since infection can occur during this period of time, for this reason it is recommended to take the analysis regularly.
What determines the analysis of feces for enterobiasis
A smear for enterobiasis is considered the most informative method that allows you to detect pinworms in adults and children, as well as pinworm eggs. Examining feces for enterobiasis, it is possible to detect not only infection with helminths, but also the presence of eggs, larvae and fragments of parasites.
A smear, if there are symptoms of enterobiasis, should be taken more than twice with an interval of one to two weeks. There are cases when the first and second studies for enterobiasis showed a negative, unreliable result, and pinworms can be detected only in the last smear.
If pinworm eggs are not identified, then it can be judged that there is no disease. In the case when a smear for enterobiasis showed a positive result, the doctor will select the appropriate therapy and tell you how to treat pinworms.
Enterobiasis symptoms - how to treat enterobiasis
In order to prevent self-infection and infection of others, you should consult a doctor, he will select the necessary method of therapy. If there are no contraindications, then the treatment of enterobiasis in adults is carried out with the help of drugs. Modern drugs will provide fast and effective removal of parasites from the body. The following drugs for pinworms in adults have proven themselves well: Pirantel, Vormil, Vankin, Dekaris. The dosage depends on the age and body weight of the person and is calculated using the table indicated in the instructions for use.
If there are contraindications to taking medications of systemic action, which include allergies to the components of the drug, pregnancy, and breastfeeding, you can use local drugs that help remove small white worms in humans, for example, Vormio candles, Helmavitol and others.
Traditional medicines are quite effective: beet juice, pumpkin seeds, garlic, onions. But in most cases, treatment comes down to observing a hygienic regime: bed and underwear after sleep is ironed with a hot iron; the use of cotton swabs for the anus or panties with thigh elastic bands, which prevents pinworm eggs from scattering and pinworms crawling into the genitals of girls and women, relieves itching; disinfection of bathrooms and toilets, toys, dishes and other household items.
Hygiene measures are carried out for all family members, even if only one person is sick.
The hygienic regimen for enterobiasis should be observed for 2-3 weeks, after which the effectiveness of treatment is monitored: microscopic examination of the scraping for the presence of eggs, then two repeated scrapings with a break of a week.
Complications of enterobiasis
Enterobiasis can provoke various types of diseases, which include the following:
- appendicitis, painful sensations for a long time in the appendix area;
- proctitis (inflammation of the rectal mucosa);
- inflammatory reactions, skin diseases caused by scratching the anus (including infectious diseases);
- inflammation of the external genital area among female representatives.
Given the similarity of enterobiasis with another type of disease, which, in turn, are associated with certain systems in the body, patients are often sent to specific specialists of a narrow profile, in accordance with the symptoms. In this case, it is important that the selected specialist properly assesses the general condition of the patient, referring him, if necessary, to a specialist of the required profile.
Prevention of enterobiasis
The rules for the prevention of enterobiasis are as follows:
- adherence to the rules of personal hygiene (often wash your hands with soap and water, especially after going to the toilet and before eating, cut your nails short and avoid licking fingers, fingernails);
- installation of pedal flushes of water in public toilets;
- disinfection of dishes in drying cabinets in the catering system.
- in the morning and before going to bed, it is necessary to wear clean underwear, which must be ironed after washing;
- carry out wet cleaning in the apartment every day.
If you do not follow these recommendations, then it will be almost impossible to cure enterobiasis, and the likelihood that small white worms will appear in the feces will be quite high.
Find out more:
- Analysis for enterobiasis: how to prepare, how to take it and how much is done?
- A smear for enterobiasis in children: how and why it is taken
- Analysis for enterobiasis: how it is carried out and how to prepare for it