Analysis Of Feces For Dysentery: How To Take, Terms And Methods

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Analysis Of Feces For Dysentery: How To Take, Terms And Methods
Analysis Of Feces For Dysentery: How To Take, Terms And Methods

Video: Analysis Of Feces For Dysentery: How To Take, Terms And Methods

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Analysis of feces for dysentery is the main method of detecting the disease, capable of detecting any deviations from normal indicators. With the help of stool diagnostics, you can evaluate the features, structure, impurities in the feces. Dysentery is a widespread infectious disease that peaks during the summer season. It is easy to get the infection through unwashed fruits and apples. Analysis of feces for dysentery is a modern method for diagnosing the disease.

The content of the article:

  • 1 Importance of early diagnosis
  • 2 Clinical symptoms of the disease
  • 3 Diagnostic procedures
  • 4 Analysis of feces for dysentery - bacteriological culture (bacteriological culture)
  • 5 The advantages of bacteriological culture are:
  • 6 Disadvantages of bacteriological culture:
  • 7 Indications for bacteriological research
  • 8 Material for bacterial sowing
  • 9 What microorganisms can be detected during bacterial sowing
  • 10 What is bacteriological culture
  • 11 How much analysis is done
  • 12 Seeding tank results
  • 13 How to properly prepare for the analysis
  • 14 How to properly collect feces for analysis
  • 15 How to store stool before sending it to the laboratory

The importance of timely diagnosis

Stool analysis for dysentery
Stool analysis for dysentery

It is not so easy to recognize dysentery in practice because there are infectious and non-infectious diseases with similar clinical manifestations. A characteristic feature of the causative agents of dysentery (shigella) is the ability to change resistance to antibacterial drugs. An untimely diagnosed disease will lead to infection of a large number of people. The misuse of antibiotics is the cause of the emergence of resistance in bacteria, leading to massive infections and fatal epidemics. The source of infection is patients and carriers of bacteria that excrete pathogenic microorganisms with fecal masses. The incubation period for dysentery is 2-3 days.

Clinical symptoms of the disease

  • Sudden fever with a body temperature of 40 degrees or more.
  • Diarrhea more than 10 times a day.
  • The appearance in the stool of blood, mucus, in rare cases of pus.
  • Disturbed appetite up to complete absence.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Cuts in the abdomen and right hypochondrium.
  • Pain in the rectum.
  • Dehydration.
  • Dry tongue with a white coating.
  • Arrhythmia.
  • Decrease in blood pressure.
  • Disorders of consciousness.

Diagnostic procedures

Stool analysis for dysentery
Stool analysis for dysentery

Scatological examination is a simple and affordable clinical method that detects mucus, blood streaks, erythrocytes, neutrophils (up to 50 in the field of view) and altered epithelial cells.Diagnosis of the disease includes conventional and special methods that establish not only the final diagnosis, but also assess the level disorders of the digestive system.

Analysis of feces for dysentery. With dysentery, the diagnosis is made on the basis of the epidemiological picture of the disease, clinical symptoms and studies. The main laboratory diagnostics is the analysis of feces for microbiology, sowing up to 80% of pathogens. The serological method is carried out no earlier than the 5th day of the disease; this type of study complements, but does not replace, microbiological analysis. Other methods:

  • Sigmoidoscopy - allows you to monitor the healing process. Not applicable to children.
  • Allergy test method is an auxiliary method based on taking an allergic skin test with dysenterin (Zuverkalov's method).

Fecal analysis for dysentery - bacteriological culture (bacteriological culture)

Bacteriological seeding (bacteriological seeding) is a microbiological laboratory study of human biological material by sowing it on certain nutrient media at a certain temperature regime in order to detect the presence of any number of pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in it and further solve the problems of specific treatment.

When certain microorganisms are isolated, a second important analysis is carried out - an antibioticogram - to determine the sensitivity of the detected pathogens to antibacterial drugs and bacteriophages.

The bacteriological culture differs depending on the biological materials used:

  • Blood culture tank (or completely bacteriological blood culture) indicated for patients with fever and chills. Also, blood culture is prescribed by doctors to persons with suspected endocarditis, immunosuppression, or intravascular infection. Blood culture for sterility is also used.
  • Tank seeding feces, allowing to identify dysbiosis. As a rule, fecal culture is prescribed to the patient when routine tests are not able to identify the causative agent of a particular infection. A doctor and a laboratory assistant should talk about how to take a stool culture tank.
  • Stool analysis for dysentery
    Stool analysis for dysentery

    Tank culture from the nose and throat, indicated for tonsillitis, sinusitis and rhinitis. Bacterial culture from the pharynx allows you to identify viruses and bacteria that are not detected by conventional tests. And, for example, nasal culture in some cases helps to start effective treatment without the use of antibiotics.

  • Sowing tank from the eye, indispensable for purulent-inflammatory processes of the eyes. The seeding tank of the eye, like similar cultures from other organs, allows you to identify an infection that does not manifest itself in other analyzes.
  • Sputum culture tank used in the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections and pulmonary tuberculosis. Sputum culture in many cases is simply irreplaceable. The collection of sputum on the inoculation tank should be carried out under the supervision of a laboratory assistant.
  • The sowing tank of secretions includes the sowing of all biological fluids that are secreted by a person in the course of his life.
  • Bile seeding tank is used in inflammatory diseases of the liver and gallbladder, such as cholecystitis, cholangitis, gallstone disease. It is used to identify microflora and select the best treatment tactics. The normal result is no flora. If any microorganism is isolated as a result of bacterial culture, then it is positive. Most often enterococcus is sown. When Staphylococcus aureus is detected, it can be concluded that there is a hepatic or diaphragmatic abscess. Bile is collected by probing or surgery and placed in a 3-4 ml container.
  • Tank culture from the urethra in men allows you to identify sexually transmitted diseases. Urethral culture tank is indispensable in the diagnosis of STIs. Just like in men, the urethral culture tank in women is used after routine tests have not revealed the causative agent of the disease present.
  • Bacteriological culture from the skin of the face will help identify Staphylococcus aureus and other representatives of pathogenic microflora, as well as fungi. Tank culture from the skin of the face is carried out with the collection of sebum and epithelium.
  • The decoding of the smear culture tank is carried out in the laboratory. Bacterial smear culture contains the number of representatives of normal, opportunistic and pathogenic microflora, and therefore it is very informative. The patient can find out from his doctor about what the smear culture shows the tank.

The advantages of bacteriological culture are:

  • High specificity of the method (that is, no false cross-reactions are observed).
  • The ability to investigate absolutely any biological fluid of a person.
  • The therapeutic goal is to determine the sensitivity of the detected microbe to one or another therapeutic agent (antibioticogram), which allows for therapeutic purposes with a sufficiently high accuracy.

Disadvantages of bacteriological culture:

  • The duration of the result.
  • High requirements for material sampling.
  • Certain requirements for the qualifications of personnel in bacteriological laboratories.

Indications for bacteriological research

Stool analysis for dysentery
Stool analysis for dysentery

Analysis of feces for dysentery. The use of the microbiological research method is quite widespread in medical practice, in particular, in infectious diseases, gynecology, urology, surgery, otolaryngology, oncology, and others. An unconditional indication for the need for bacterial sowing is any inflammatory disease of organs and systems of the human body, a suspicion of a septic process.

Material for bacterial sowing

The following biological environments of the human body are taken for research: nasopharyngeal mucus, mucus from the pharynx, secretion of the bronchial tree (sputum), stool (feces), mucus of the urethra, cervical canal, prostate secretion, urine, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, breast milk, bile, contents cysts, inflammatory foci, wound discharge.

What microorganisms can be detected during bacterial sowing

Analysis of feces for dysentery. In the mucus of the nose and throat can be found hemolytic streptococci (Streptococcuc pyogenes, Streptococcuc agalactiae), pneumococci (Streptococcuc pneumoniae), Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcus auereus), coryneobacterium diphtheria (Corynebacterium influenzae) type of diphtheria (Corynebacterium influenzae)), listeria (Listeria).

In the stool, they try to identify the intestinal group of bacteria - Salmonella and Shigella (Salmonella spp., Shigella spp.) Yersinia (Iersiniae spp.), Typhoid-paratyphoid group of bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, Salmonella paratyphi B), causative pathogens infections, anaerobic microbes, pathogens of foodborne diseases, and also examine feces for intestinal dysbiosis.

Pseudomonas or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) can be detected in wound contents, biopunctate, purulent discharge.

The mucus of the urogenital tract is examined for the presence of sexually transmitted pathogens in it - gonococcus, Trichomonas, fungi (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, fungi of the genus Candida), ureaplasma (Ureaplasma urealyticum), mycoplasma (Mycoplasma), hominis (Lominis) you can also examine the smear for bacterial flora.

Blood can be inoculated (examined) for sterility.

Materials such as breast milk, urine, prostate secretions, scraping, smear, wound contents, joint fluid, bile are examined for general contamination (bacterial flora).

What is bacteriological culture

Analysis of feces for dysentery. Material for research in a bacteriological laboratory is placed (inoculated) on special nutrient media. Depending on the desired search for a particular pathogen or a group of pathogens, sowing is performed on different media.

For example, it can be a selective or elective nutrient medium (for the growth of a single pathogen, the growth of other microbes is inhibited), an example of which can be coagulated horse serum for the detection of diphtheria pathogens or a medium with selenite or bile salts for the detection of intestinal pathogens.

Another example would be differential diagnostic media (Giss medium), which are used to decipher bacterial cultures. If necessary, subculture from liquid culture media to solid media in order to better identify the colonies.

Then the culture media are placed in a thermostat (a special device), in which favorable conditions (temperature, humidity, etc.) are created for the growth and reproduction of pathogens; a certain time is in the environment thermostat.

Further, a control examination of the grown colonies of microorganisms, which is called a "culture of microorganisms", is carried out. If necessary, microscopy of the material of the colonies is carried out with preliminary staining with special dyes.

What is assessed during the control examination? This is the shape, color, density of colonies, after additional research - the ability to decompose some inorganic and organic compounds.

Next, the pathogens are counted. A microbiological study takes into account such a concept as a colony-forming unit (CFU) - one microbial cell capable of forming a colony, or a visible colony of microbes. By CFU, it is possible to determine the concentration or number of microorganisms in the test sample. CFU counting is carried out by different methods: by counting colonies under a microscope, by the method of serial dilutions, by the sector method.

How much analysis is done

Stool analysis for dysentery
Stool analysis for dysentery

Analysis of feces for dysentery. In most cases, the answers to the question of how much sowing tank is done will be as follows:

  • 5-7 days when examining mucus from the nasopharynx;
  • 4-7 days in the study of urine and feces (in this case, the timing of bacterial culture is specified by the laboratory assistant) (Main article: "Bacterial culture of urine");
  • 7 days when examining scraping of the urogenital tract;
  • 4-7 days when testing for general flora;
  • 10 days when testing blood for sterility.

One way or another, about how many days a sowing tank is being prepared from this or that organ, you need to find out in the laboratory in which you pass it.

Seeding tank results

The seeding tank results are delivered to the patient's hands. The very decoding of the seeding tank is performed by a microbiologist in the laboratory. It is he who issues the doctor a conclusion containing data on the number of certain microorganisms, as well as their sensitivity to antibiotics.

Deciphering the bacterial culture helps the doctor, in case of exceeding the norms for the presence of fungi or bacteria, as well as the presence of signs of inflammation, to prescribe the appropriate treatment for this case.

How to properly prepare for the analysis

Stool analysis for dysentery
Stool analysis for dysentery

Analysis of feces for dysentery. Some medications may affect the stool test result. Therefore, their use must be suspended or discontinued in preparation for the delivery of a stool test after consulting your doctor.

Stop taking medications (after personal consultation with your doctor). Drugs that can interfere with stool test results include:

  1. Antidiarrheal drugs (Smecta, Neosmectin, Polifan, Imodium, Enterol)
  2. Anthelmintic drugs (Nemozol, Dekaris, Vermox, Helmintox)
  3. Antibiotics - any kind
  4. Healing and cleansing enemas
  5. Laxatives (Bisacodyl, Senna Extract, Forlax, Portalac)
  6. NSAIDs - non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Aspirin, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen)
  • Also, be sure to warn the doctor about all the drugs that you are taking or took shortly before the test.
  • If you have been outside the country in the past few months, you should tell the doctor about the places where you have been. Parasites, fungal infections, viruses and bacteria that are found in specific countries can affect the test results.
  • Also, do not use feces that have been in contact with cleaning agents or disinfectants that are used to clean the toilet, water or urine.

How to properly collect feces for analysis

  1. Urine before collecting material to prevent urine from entering the stool.
  2. It is necessary to take a clean, dry container where bowel movements will be carried out.
  3. From the material obtained, you need to take 8-10 cm3 (~ 2 teaspoons). Feces are collected using a special "spoon" that is built into the lid of a special container, which should be given to you to collect feces.
  4. Feces for analysis are collected from different parts of feces (top, sides, inside)
  5. The material (feces) is put in a container given to you and closed tightly.
  6. It is necessary to sign the container (your name and surname, date of collection of the analysis)

How to store stool before sending it to the laboratory

Analysis of feces for dysentery. Material for the analysis of feces for dysbiosis and intestinal infection must be delivered to the laboratory as soon as possible, 30-40 minutes (maximum 1.5-2 hours). The more time has passed since the collection of the material and the moment the material was delivered to the laboratory, the less reliable the analyzes will be.

The problem is that most of the bacteria in the intestine are anaerobic, that is, they live in an environment without oxygen, and die upon contact with it. This can affect the reliability of the result. Therefore, keeping at least any time in excess of the recommended maximum 2 hours is strictly not recommended.

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