Table of contents:
- What is the diagnosis of feces for?
- General rules for preparing for analyzes
- Rules for passing a feces analysis
- Preparation for collecting feces for analysis
- Dishes for collecting feces
- Basic principles of feces collection
- Analysis of feces for eggs of worms: how to take
- How to properly pass a stool analysis for carbohydrates
- How to pass a feces test for dysbiosis correctly
- How to properly prepare for coprogram
- Scraping for enterobiasis
- Fecal occult blood test
- The main indicators of feces
Video: Take A Stool Test: How To Do It Right, How To Collect It, Where And How To Take It
Taking a stool test is a common laboratory test method that is used to diagnose various diseases. A stool analysis may be required by a person at any age; one should not think that this is the prerogative of only small children. In order to get the most truthful information, you need to follow the rules of preparation for testing.
The content of the article:
- 1 What is the diagnosis of feces for?
- 2 General rules for preparing for analyzes
- 3 Rules for passing a feces analysis
- 4 Preparation for collecting feces for analysis
- 5 Dishes for collecting feces
- 6 Basic principles of feces collection
- 7 Analysis of feces for eggs of worms: how to donate
- 8 How to properly pass the analysis of feces for carbohydrates
- 9 How to correctly pass a feces test for dysbiosis
- 10 How to properly prepare for coprogram
- 11 Scraping for enterobiasis
- 12 Delivery of fecal occult blood test
- 13 The main indicators of feces
What is the diagnosis of feces for?
Many people ask themselves what is a feces analysis, and why is it needed, and can serious diseases be detected through such a diagnosis? The analysis is carried out in order to study the state of the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract and the digestive system as a whole.
In a normal state, the feces have an amorphous consistency, and consist mainly of the remains of food consumed by humans. In a healthy person, only food residues are visible in the feces, since the stomach does not always completely digest all food.
Take a stool test. The presence of impurities such as blood, mucus, or discoloration and consistency of stool is a good reason to seek professional help. Usually, to identify the true cause of the disease, doctors suggest taking feces for analysis.
In medicine, such an analysis is called a coprogram. This research method requires special preparation, and also allows you to identify the exact cause of the following stable conditions: feeling of nausea, open vomiting; blood in feces; flatulence; belching, accompanied by an unpleasant odor and aftertaste; painful symptoms in the stomach; dysbiosis.
Coprogram as a research method carefully studies the components of fecal mass, gives an objective assessment of the patient's health. Thanks to the results of the coprogram, the specialist will not only be able to learn about the cause of the disease and make an accurate diagnosis, but also prescribe an adequate method of treatment.
General rules for preparing for analyzes
To ensure maximum accuracy and reliability of the results, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the established rules for preparing for the upcoming laboratory test:
- the last meal no earlier than 12 hours before the test; it is advisable to exclude taking medications if there are no specific instructions from the attending physician;
- it is necessary to warn the registrars of the CDL "OLIMP" about the drugs taken;
- morning medication is carried out only after passing the analysis; exclude alcohol intake 1 day before the test and do not smoke 2 hours before the test, also exclude emotional stress on the eve of the test;
- having come to the treatment room, it is not recommended to take tests immediately - you need to rest for 15-20 minutes;
- if the repeated delivery of analyzes is envisaged, then for maximum reliability it is necessary to take them in the same laboratory at the same time of day.
Rules for passing a feces analysis
A coprological study helps to find out how food is digested and in which part of the digestive tract a failure has occurred. Research requires preparation. Five days before him, the doctor prescribes a diet, which must be strictly observed so that the laboratory assistant knows the composition of the food.
Before the analysis, you should not do enemas, take laxatives and other medications, as well as dyes. From four places of fresh stool, take about 10 grams of stool with a spatula and place in a clean mayonnaise jar.
Preparation for analyzes begins in three days.
Feces for eggs of worms have to be handed over to everyone whose work is related to food, and to children attending children's institutions. Stool analysis for occult blood is performed in patients with anemia or suspected cancer. It allows you to reveal hidden bleeding from the digestive system.
Exclude all foods containing iron: meat, fish, tomatoes, buckwheat, apples and green vegetables. Do not brush your teeth - blood from the gums can enter the stomach. This test should not be taken during your period. The feces are collected as for scatological analysis.
Bacteriological examination of feces is carried out when applying for a job related to food, by employees of medical and children's institutions, in preparation for an operation.
Preparation for collecting feces for analysis
Preparing for the test is as important as the diagnosis itself. Therefore, the following recommendations were developed:
Preparing for the test is as important as the diagnosis itself. Recommendations for passing a stool analysis:
- feces are required to be collected in the morning. Immediately before collection, it is imperative to carry out hygienic procedures for the genitals and anus using soap. Discharge, blood, drops of urine from the genitourinary organs should not get into the biomaterial, and fragments of feces from the toilet should not be collected - this can qualitatively affect the results;
- if the feces are taken for the study of latent blood, then a few days before its collection, a special preparation of the body is required, namely, to refuse the use of foods containing in large quantities. One day before delivery, refuse medications so as not to provoke a chemical coloration of feces;
- if the sample is intended to identify microbes and infections that provoke dysbiosis, then it will be advisable to adhere to a strict diet for several days. Only in this way will the coprogram be able to determine what is the main cause of dysbiosis - infection or malnutrition.
Dishes for collecting feces
Before proceeding with the delivery of a biomaterial for laboratory examination, certain preparation is also required.
Today, you can buy sterile containers for the delivery of feces at any pharmacy. Special containers are characterized as sterile dishes, they can be glass and plastic.
Before delivery of the biomaterial to the laboratory, it is recommended to store it in a tightly closed container, at a temperature not higher than +5 degrees. If the room is hot, then the biomaterial must be stored in a cool place, since there is a possibility that active fermentation and reproduction of putrefactive bacteria will begin in the biomaterial.
The container is sold complete with a lid and a spatula. If it is not possible to purchase a container at a pharmacy, then you can store the collection in a small bottle with a lid, which must first be thoroughly rinsed and dried.
If the feces are donated to determine dysbiosis, then the collection can take place at any time of the day, respectively, the question arises of how much biomaterial can be stored in the refrigerator. The answer to this question is simple - no more than a day.
Observing these simple rules for collecting biomaterial, you can submit a high-quality sample to the laboratory, which will reveal the cause of the disease. Many patients ask how many days it takes to diagnose a biomaterial? Experts say that no more than a day.
Basic principles of feces collection
In order to obtain accurate results, feces must be collected taking into account the following preparation knowledge:
- the sample must be obtained in a natural way, it is forbidden to use any laxatives and enemas;
- preparation for collection of faeces should begin with a sterile stick and utensils. The collection is recommended to be stored only in a sterile container;
- for the sample, only a fresh sample of feces is needed. The optimal time from collection to the moment of sending to the laboratory should be no more than 3-4 hours, since after 4 hours the microbiological composition of the feces changes. Store in a cool place;
- do not collect feces from the toilet. Living microorganisms on the walls of the toilet bowl will get into the feces, which will affect the results of the coprogram. It is better to empty into a clean bag, pot. You can also stretch cling film on the toilet;
- to identify worms and their eggs, it is necessary to take several samples, that is, collect feces from 2-3 feces; during menstruation, refuse to take tests. If it is necessary for health reasons, then you need to use a tampon so that the blood does not get into the sample.
Many people ask themselves how much stool should be collected for one sample? Experts say that 10-15 grams of feces is enough.
Analysis of feces for eggs of worms: how to take
The analysis of feces for worms is recommended for: persons who have pets; persons who have constant contact with the ground, sand; people who are unable to observe the rules of personal hygiene during the day; often ill children. A qualified doctor will always tell you how to take a feces test for eggs of worms or enterobiasis.
A quality result can be obtained only with good preparation for this procedure. Feces must be handed over to the laboratory no later than 12 hours after the act of defecation. If a child needs to pass it, you should carefully monitor that it does not contain urine impurities. It is best to do this in a clean, dry pot. Collecting analysis from the toilet is prohibited.
Take a stool test. The manipulation should be carried out only in the morning, without first washing away. It is impossible to collect material after an enema, taking a laxative and the introduction of suppositories. To detect helminth eggs, a special preparation is made - a concentrated sediment.
For example, an anal scraping is used to detect pinworms. This procedure can be easily done at home yourself. It is necessary to stick the adhesive tape to the base of the anus and then apply it to a glass slide provided by a physician or pediatrician.
Take five pieces of feces from different sites and place them in a test tube. Add water 15 to 20 times the volume and dissolve by stirring with a glass rod. The mixture is defended and the liquid is carefully decanted. A drop, sediment is transferred with a pipette onto a glass slide, and a cover glass is placed on top and examined using modern microscopes.
An adult can have an act of defecation, on a clean sheet of paper, and then dispose of the feces. It is better to place the material in a clean, dry container with a special spoon. It takes about five grams of biological material from different sites.
Take a stool test. One of the most asked questions to doctors when taking a feces test for worm eggs is how much can be stored in the refrigerator, how long it will take to cook and how long it is valid. So, as mentioned above, you should not store the analysis for more than a day, but it must be kept in the refrigerator or a cool place.
Modern laboratories carry out research on the same day, but in some cases they can be delayed by a day. The analysis is valid for ten days, at the end of the period it is advisable to retake it.
How to properly pass a stool analysis for carbohydrates
Take a stool test. One of the specific types of analyzes is the analysis of feces for carbohydrates. In the overwhelming majority of cases, it is assigned to babies in the first year of life. Feces for carbohydrates of newborns can reveal the so-called lactase deficiency.
In other words, to determine if a child has an intolerance to milk and derivatives, which often happens at a young age. Indications for the analysis of feces for carbohydrates can be symptoms such as unstable stools, increased gas production, accompanied by pain, and bloating. If the baby cries before going to the toilet for a big, or right after, you should pay increased attention to this. Perhaps you are at risk.
Adult patients are also prescribed to have a stool test for carbohydrates. Chronic pancreatitis, for example, can cause carbohydrates to not be absorbed. Remaining not split, they move down into the intestines, causing fermentation, irritable bowel syndrome, causing a lot of anxiety.
Regular loose stools, without taking laxatives and not provoked by any diet, is also a reason for examination.
You don't have to do anything special. If the analysis is to be passed to the baby, then you need to try to spend some time without a diaper. Feces must be collected from a clean oilcloth, but in no case from a tissue or cellulose surface.
The material you need can be collected by yourself using a special spoon and a sterile container. 5-10 ml is sufficient. The container must be delivered for subsequent analysis of feces for carbohydrates during the same day. It is best to keep the container tightly closed in the refrigerator until transport.
How to pass a feces test for dysbiosis correctly
To pass an analysis of feces for dysbiosis - a study of the human intestinal microflora. The analysis evaluates the concentration and ratio of "useful" (lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, E. coli), opportunistic (enterobacteria, staphylococcus, clostridia, fungi) and pathogenic (shigella, salmonella microorganisms).
Due to various reasons, "beneficial" bacteria can disappear from the intestinal microflora and fungi of the genus Candida, Staphylococcus, Proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can appear.
3-4 days before the study, you need to stop taking laxatives and stop the administration of rectal suppositories.
Feces obtained after an enema, as well as after an X-ray examination with barium, are unsuitable for analysis. If the patient is taking antibiotics, the analysis is done no earlier than 12 hours after drug withdrawal.
The feces are collected in a sterile container. It is necessary to ensure that no urine enters the analysis. Feces are delivered to the laboratory within 3 hours from the moment of collection of the analysis. It is advisable to keep the container with feces in the cold, but not freeze. This test will not be accepted in laboratories on Saturday and Sunday.
How to properly prepare for coprogram
Coprogram (fecal analysis) - the study of the physical, chemical and microscopic characteristics of feces. The study of feces allows you to diagnose dysfunction of the stomach, pancreas, liver, the presence of accelerated passage of food through the stomach and intestines, malabsorption in the duodenum and small intestine; inflammatory process in the gastrointestinal tract, ulcerative, allergic, spastic colitis.
7-10 days before the test, cancel medications (all laxatives, bismuth, iron preparations, fat-based rectal suppositories, enzymes and other drugs that affect the processes of digestion and absorption).
You can not do enemas the day before. After an X-ray examination of the stomach and intestines, the analysis of feces is possible no earlier than two days later.
For 4-5 days, you must adhere to the following diet: milk, dairy products, cereals, mashed potatoes, white bread with butter, 1-2 soft-boiled eggs, some fresh fruit. Stool is collected after spontaneous bowel movement in a disposable plastic container with a sealed lid. Mixing urine with feces should be avoided.
Scraping for enterobiasis
This analysis allows you to determine the presence of pinworm eggs. Scraping for enterobiasis should be carried out by everyone at least 1-2 times a year. This analysis allows you to determine the presence of pinworms 50%, which is much more than a simple analysis of feces for helminth eggs (10-15%). To obtain the most accurate data, this analysis can be carried out 2-3 times with a break of several days.
Pinworms and worms are the most common types of parasites in humans. Therefore, this analysis is the most common, and is required in almost all institutions during employment, enrollment of children in kindergartens, schools, admission to the hospital, opening a medical card, and routine examinations.
Take a stool test. There should not be any specific preparations before scraping for enterobiasis. The only recommendation is not to toilet the area of the anus and not go to the toilet "in large quantities", this will allow you to get the most reliable analysis results.
Fecal occult blood test
Analysis of feces for occult blood - revealing "hidden" blood, invisible during microscopic examination.
For 7-10 days before the test, cancel medications (all laxatives, bismuth, iron preparations). You can not do enemas the day before. After an X-ray examination of the stomach and intestines, a fecal analysis is prescribed no earlier than two days later.
The container with feces must be delivered to the laboratory on the day of collection of the material, and stored in the refrigerator (4-6 С0) before shipment.
Before the analysis, exclude meat, liver and all foods containing iron (apples, bell peppers, spinach, white beans, green onions) from the diet three days in advance. Stool is collected after spontaneous bowel movement in a disposable plastic container with a sealed lid. Mixing urine with feces should be avoided.
The main indicators of feces
Take a stool test. The main signs by which the study is built and deviations from the norm are determined: color; consistency; smell; the presence of protein; the level of leukocytes.
Let's consider each of these signs separately:
- color: a reddish tinge of feces indicates ulcerative or oncological diseases. Moreover, blood may be present in the feces. Yellow color - indicates a violation of the digestive process, the presence of infection and dysbiosis. Black color is a sign of bleeding or the presence of blood clots in the stomach cavity. Light yellow is a sign of hepatitis and pancreatitis. White color indicates a blockage of the bile duct;
- consistency: loose stools are associated with the presence of inflammatory processes, dysbiosis and hypersecretion of the mucous membrane in the small intestine. Oily feces indicates cholecystitis and pancreatitis. Dense feces indicate the presence of stenosis or inflammatory process of the colon. The large intestine begins to store processed food material, resulting in constipation and dense masses of feces;
- odor: low odor is associated with impairments such as accelerated evacuation or insufficient digestion. In the presence of an ulcer, the smell of feces is characterized by a putrid odor. A sour smell will indicate a malfunction of the pancreas and that there is blood in the stool.
Find out more:
- Feces for analysis: types, how to collect and hand over, decoding
- Scraping - analysis of feces for enterobiasis: how to prepare and where it is carried out
- Analysis of feces for enterobiasis: how to prepare and take
- Analysis of feces for dysentery: how to take, terms and methods