Analysis For Enterobiasis: How It Is Carried Out And How To Prepare For It

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Analysis For Enterobiasis: How It Is Carried Out And How To Prepare For It
Analysis For Enterobiasis: How It Is Carried Out And How To Prepare For It

Video: Analysis For Enterobiasis: How It Is Carried Out And How To Prepare For It

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Enterobius vermicularis 2023, February
Anonim

An analysis for enterobiasis is used to identify pinworms in the body. This research method is accurate and widespread. This disease is also called "dirty hands disease", as infection most often occurs in this way.

The content of the article:

  • 1 What is enterobiasis
  • 2 What is scraping for enterobiasis
  • 3 General information about the study
  • 4 Scraping for enterobiasis: when it is necessary to take
  • 5 Causes of the disease in adults and children
  • 6 For what symptoms is scraping done for enterobiasis
  • 7 How to prepare for the delivery of scraping for enterobiasis
  • 8 How to get a patient tested for enterobiasis
  • 9 Scraping for enterobiasis: as taken from adults
  • 10 Scraping for enterobiasis: how they take from children
  • 11 What to do if a disease is detected
  • 12 How long to wait for the result of scraping for enterobiasis
  • 13 How much is the test for enterobiasis valid?

What is enterobiasis

The emergence of enterobiasis is provoked by pinworms. These parasitic worms reach a size of no more than 10 millimeters. It was the pointed tip that gave pinworms such a name. Parasites of different colors are observed: from white and yellow to black and dark brown.

The pathogenesis of enterobiasis is as follows:

  1. Pinworm eggs enter the human body through the respiratory tract or the mouth opening.
  2. After about two weeks in the intestine, the larvae transform into adults capable of reproduction.
  3. Parasites are localized in the areas of the small and large intestine.
  4. At night, female helminths emerge from the anus to lay eggs. When laying, parasites secrete a fluid that causes itching, irritation and redness of the skin.
  5. After laying the eggs, female pinworms die.

For an infected child or adult, the night of lay can be particularly uncomfortable. In the morning, a person feels severe itching, which provokes him to scratch the anus. Thus, re-infection most often occurs in children who have a habit of biting their nails or licking their fingers.

What is scraping for enterobiasis

Analysis of feces (scraping) for enterobiasis - detection of pinworm eggs (helminths, the clinical manifestations of which are itching in the anal area and intestinal disorders).

Enterobiasis is a disease caused by small parasitic worms - pinworms. The pinworms do not exceed 1 cm in length. Usually one end of this worm is pointed (hence the name), and the other is rounded. The color of parasites can vary from whitish or yellow to dark or even black.

Live pinworms can crawl or wriggle. Pinworms are nocturnal: it is at night that females enter the rectum and onto the skin around the anus, causing discomfort and itching, lay eggs in the folds of the skin and die.

Infection occurs through dirty hands or contaminated objects. A child, scratching or touching the skin in the perineum, contaminates the hands with eggs of worms. Infection can also occur when the hands are contaminated from bedding or underwear, where eggs get from the body of a sick person.

How to take an analysis for enterobiasis
How to take an analysis for enterobiasis

Flies and cockroaches have been proven to play a role in transferring pinworm eggs. Re-infections through the anus are possible, when individuals matured to the larval stage move from the skin to the intestines. Enterobiasis is very common and is considered the most common infection in the world. In some children's groups, up to 100% of children are infected with pinworms.

General information about the study

Enterobiasis is a helminthiasis caused by worms from the pinworm genus. It is one of the most common parasitic diseases in children. The infection is widespread throughout the world, including in developed countries, according to rough estimates, the infection rate in children is 4-28%.

Pinworm - the causative agent of the disease - a white worm, 0.5-1 cm in length, in the human body lives in the cecum and appendix. It feeds mainly on the contents of the intestines. The main clinical symptom - itching in the perianal region occurs when pinworms lay eggs on the skin during sleep (from 5,000 to 15,000 eggs) and then die.

How to take an analysis for enterobiasis
How to take an analysis for enterobiasis

Distribution occurs mainly through the fecal-oral route, for example, eggs can fall under a person's nails when scratching, then get on household items and personal hygiene items. In the transmission of the pathogen, the main problem is hand hygiene, therefore, children are more likely to get sick with enterobiasis, especially in crowded places (kindergartens, schools).

The high prevalence of enterobiasis can be explained by the mild clinic of the disease, which most often manifests itself in perianal itching. In addition, symptoms such as anxiety, loss of appetite, insomnia, irritability may be present. With a severe and prolonged course, mental developmental disorders of children may be noted.

In rare cases, ectopic enterobiasis can develop, for example, in the kidneys or fallopian tubes, which can lead to serious consequences. Diagnosis is carried out by scraping from the perinanal area (using adhesive tape) followed by microscopy.

In the treatment of enterobiasis, a special role should be given to hygienic measures: washing hands, cutting nails, changing frequently, washing and ironing clothes. To prevent the spread of eggs, zinc ointment is applied topically to the perianal area. Drug treatment consists in taking anthelmintic drugs (contact persons also undergo treatment).

Scraping for enterobiasis: when to take

The symptoms of enterobiasis should be a good reason to see your doctor for advice. This pathology is very common in our country, so everyone can become infected with it.

How to take an analysis for enterobiasis
How to take an analysis for enterobiasis

Infection can occur when the following factors are present:

  • the use of insufficiently thermally processed meat and fish products;
  • neglect of the rules of personal hygiene;
  • the presence of bad habits: biting off nails, licking fingers. Most often, this is how babies become infected;
  • sharing household items with an infected person, as well as close bodily contact (handshakes, hugs);
  • eating poorly washed vegetables and fruits, especially in the summer, when there is a risk that insects have sat on the food;
  • drinking untreated water from natural sources.

Weak immunity contributes to infection. It is believed that in the presence of symptoms of pathology in a child, parents also need to be tested, since this disease is transmitted through the household. The disease has an incubation period that lasts from 12 days to two weeks.

It is after this period of time after infection that the first signs of the disease begin to appear:

  • there is itching and discomfort in the anal area after a bowel movement;
  • there is discomfort and pain in the gastrointestinal tract;
  • gas formation increases;
  • food is poorly digested, which causes constipation and diarrhea;
  • the color of the skin of the genitals and excretory organs changes;
  • rashes on the skin;
  • inflammatory processes, infections of the genitourinary system (thrush, urethritis);
  • for babies, you can often observe an increased interest in the genital area and anus.

Also, scraping for enterobiasis is taken in such cases:

  • pregnancy;
  • issuance of sick leave;
  • hospitalization;
  • admission to a secondary and preschool institution;
  • the need to provide a certificate of passing a medical examination in a public institution, for example, a swimming pool or a spa complex, a camp.

In the presence of small children in the family, this procedure should be done once or twice a year.

Causes of the disease in adults and children

Before analyzing the signs and symptoms of pathology in children and adults, you need to find out where the worms come from in the body, and how the scraping is taken. Pinworm eggs are the cause of helminthic infestation. Pinworm eggs penetrate the intestines and parasitize in all its parts, causing unpleasant symptoms for a long time and disrupting the functionality of the body.

During initial infection, the eggs may not take root and leave the intestines naturally. The incubation period is 20 - 30 days. In this case, an analysis for enterobiasis is not needed.

With a secondary infection, the eggs take root, provoking the development of enterobiasis. It is important to know that pinworms parasitize only in the human body, therefore pinworms cannot be infected from animals. The disease develops more often in children, because worms appear due to non-compliance with hygiene rules.

Most often, the cause of pinworms in adults and children is dirty hands. The eggs of the worms that are on the street, on dirty hands, enter the house, and from there - into the human body, and only a smear for enterobiasis will show their presence.

What are the symptoms of enterobiasis scraping

  1. Suspected infestation with pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis);
  2. "Barrier" analysis (during hospitalization, registration of a medical book, a certificate to the pool, etc.).

The period from infection to the onset of symptoms with enterobiasis is 12 to 14 days. This is the time it takes for pinworms to reach sexual maturity. The main signs of the disease are itching or discomfort in the anus, redness of the skin around the anus or in the perineum, especially after stool, an increased interest in the child's genitals, masturbation.

How to take an analysis for enterobiasis
How to take an analysis for enterobiasis

In girls, in addition, pinworms can crawl into the genital tract, causing inflammatory and infectious diseases (vulvovaginitis, urethritis, thrush).

The child becomes excitable in the evening, very moody, cannot fall asleep at night for a long time, sleeps restlessly - often wakes up, screams in his sleep, cries, rushes about in bed (while maintaining normal daytime sleep). Such symptoms may not occur every day if there are few worms in the intestines.

But when the number of parasites increases, the discomfort and the described symptoms can become permanent. In addition, pinworms, like any other focus of chronic infection, can cause disruption of the normal functioning of the intestines (abdominal pain, increased gas production - flatulence, constipation or diarrhea, indigestion, etc.), allergic reactions, intoxication (lethargy, increased fatigue, irritability, teeth grinding), lead to intestinal dysbiosis.

How to prepare for the delivery of scraping for enterobiasis

The diagnosis of enterobiasis is beyond doubt if pinworms are found. They can be seen in the evening or at night in the anus or on folds of skin or on bedding. Sometimes you can see worms in the feces (usually this indicates a large number of them).

Scraping for enterobiasis - a study to detect pinworm eggs (swab from the folds of skin around the anus or sticking a sticky cellophane tape) may not "detect" the disease if there was no oviposition the day before.

How to take an analysis for enterobiasis
How to take an analysis for enterobiasis

Therefore, such an analysis must be taken in the morning without washing the child, it was after such a night, when he could not sleep for a long time, he slept restlessly. It is advisable, if the result is negative, to repeat the scraping several times within 1 - 2 weeks, since even if all recommendations are followed, there remains a significant chance of not detecting worm eggs in the analysis.

With a serious suspicion of enterobiasis, treatment can be carried out even if pinworms or their eggs are not found.

The material can be taken in various ways:

  1. For analysis for enterobiasis, scraping is made from the perianal folds in the morning, before bowel movements, in women, before urination with an ear stick moistened with water (preferably in saline). The material obtained during scraping is placed in a special container (for urine) and delivered within 2 hours.
  2. Apply a piece of adhesive tape to the perianal area, then attach the tape to clean, degreased glass and deliver it to the laboratory in this form.

Before being sent to the laboratory, the material should be stored in a refrigerator at 4-8 ° C.

A 3-fold study is recommended.

How to get a patient tested for enterobiasis

How to take an analysis for enterobiasis
How to take an analysis for enterobiasis

These analyzes are performed in clinics, commercial institutions. The price for conducting research on enterobiasis can be specified by phone.

You can contact such specialists for advice on such issues: a therapist, a pediatrician, and an infectious disease specialist. Scraping for enterobiasis by the doctor is prescribed in the morning before urination, water procedures, bowel movements.

The methods of obtaining material for analysis are as follows:

  • Using a cotton swab previously moistened with saline, distilled water or glycerin, draw around the anus. The sample for the study of enterobiasis is placed in a flask and referred to the laboratory.
  • A glass spatula can also be used for this.
  • You can also take the test using adhesive tape, which is then placed on the glass and also sent for examination.

These tests can be done at home. The collected material is placed in a flask, the analysis for enterobiasis should be in the laboratory within 2 hours. The research period is one day. The form received indicates whether helminth eggs were found or not.

By calling the clinic, you can get all the necessary information: on the reception of specialists, the analysis for enterobiasis, the price of services. To prescribe treatment, to quickly get rid of the disease, you should not delay the visit to the doctor.

Scraping for enterobiasis: how is taken from adults

Adults can perform scraping both in the clinic and at home. In order to take the analysis yourself, you need to purchase a special kit at the pharmacy or use a cotton swab, saline solution and a sterile container.

How to take an analysis for enterobiasis
How to take an analysis for enterobiasis

Enterobiasis analysis how to take at home:

  1. Scraping is done in the morning before urination and bowel movements.
  2. Do not wash for several hours before scraping.
  3. To take the material, it is necessary to moisten the ear stick in saline or ordinary water if it is not available.
  4. Then the ear stick must be carefully drawn along the folds of the anus.
  5. Place the obtained sample in a sterile container and take it to the hospital for further research.

Usually, the result is reported within two to three days.

Scraping for enterobiasis: how is it taken from children

The collection of material must be carried out in a medical institution or a nurse's office in educational institutions. Scraping is usually done in the morning. A few hours before the procedure, you should not wash the child in order to get the most reliable result.

In order to take an analysis for the presence of pinworms in a child's body, a medical professional performs the following actions:

  1. The tape, on which a special adhesive solution is applied, is applied to the anal area and carefully glued to collect as much of the necessary material as possible.
  2. Adhesive tape is glued to the glass and signed.
  3. The analysis is sent to the laboratory, where it is stored at a temperature of no more than eight degrees.

The procedure is completely painless, so it can be done to children several times without hindrance. For a more complete picture, it is recommended to take the analysis three times within a short period of time. This is due to the fact that pinworms do not always lay eggs, for which the scraping is examined.

What to do if a disease is detected

How to take an analysis for enterobiasis
How to take an analysis for enterobiasis

If pinworms are found in the collected material, it is necessary to follow a number of rules for the treatment to be successful:

  1. Isolate a person from the team to prevent new infections.
  2. Cut your nails short. This will serve as a good prevention of self-infection.
  3. Observe the rules of personal hygiene: wash yourself twice a day, wash your hands after eating, visiting the street, touching pets.
  4. Change linen in the morning and in the evening, and sheets - several times a week, after ironing them with an iron (preferably at the highest temperature).

How long to wait for the result of scraping for enterobiasis

You can find out the result for scraping enterobiasis within a day. The material is handed over several times in order to accurately confirm the result.

Analysis for fecal enterobiasis is done in the morning, so you can find out the result on the same day. It is necessary to correctly collect an analysis for enterobiasis several times within 10 days.

How long to wait for the result depends on which diagnostic method was used. If you do a scraping once, then it may show a false result, therefore, to confirm the diagnosis, you need to collect tests twice. You can also make a correct smear at home. It is better to do tests for a child in a polyclinic.

How long is the analysis for enterobiasis valid?

The analysis for enterobiasis is valid for 10 days. That is, if a person has not presented a certificate at the place of demand during this time, he will need to donate feces for helminthic invasion again.

How to take an analysis for enterobiasis
How to take an analysis for enterobiasis

However, these terms do not mean that you will need to visit a polyclinic every 10 days. In various institutions, a document on the absence of enterobiasis in a person is required at different intervals.

  • Preschool children attending kindergartens must donate feces for enterobiasis once a year. Additional tests may be required if the child has been absent from the preschool for a long time.
  • If an adult gets a job at an enterprise where it is necessary to have a sanitary book, then he must pass an analysis for enterobiasis 2 times a year. Although it is possible that the company's internal charter will require more frequent delivery of biomaterial.
  • If a person regularly visits the pool, then he will also need to submit a certificate at least 2 times a year.
  • Be sure to carry out an analysis for enterobiasis before registering a voucher for a spa treatment.

Naturally, if a person has symptoms of enterobiasis, then one should not wait for any deadlines and consult a doctor as soon as possible for a high-quality diagnosis.

Find out more:

  • Enterobiasis in adults: analysis (scraping)
  • Enterobiasis: causes, symptoms, scraping analysis and treatment
  • Scraping - analysis of feces for enterobiasis: how to prepare and where it is carried out

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