Table of contents:
- Nemozole - composition and properties
- pharmachologic effect
- Pharmacokinetics of nemosol
- Indications and dosage
- Side effects
- special instructions
Video: Nemozol - Instructions For Use, Indications And Dosage
2023 Author: Riley Dean | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 09:15
Nemozole is perhaps one of the most famous antiparasitic agents. The active ingredient of the drug is albendazole, which is distinguished by its powerful antiparasitic effect. The drug is produced in various dosage forms, so that each patient can choose the most suitable option for himself.
The content of the article:
- 1 Nemozol - composition and properties
- 2 Pharmacological action
- 3 Pharmacokinetics of nemosol
- 4 Indications and dosage
- 5 Side effects
- 6 Contraindications
- 7 Special instructions
Nemozole - composition and properties
Anthelmintic drug. The main mechanism of action is associated with an inhibitory effect on the polymerization of beta-tubulin, which leads to the destruction of cytoplasmic microtubules of cells of the intestinal tract of helminths. Active ingredient: albendazole.
Release form - Nemozol:
Nemozole tablets, film-coated white or almost white, round, biconvex. 1 tab. albendazole 200 mg. Excipients: corn starch, gelatin, sodium lauryl sulfate, povidone (PVPK-30), purified water, methylparaben, propylparaben, purified talc, sodium starch glycolate, colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, polyethylene titanium dioxide. 2 pcs. - blisters (1) - cardboard packs.
Nemozole tablets, film-coated white or almost white, round, biconvex. 1 tab. albendazole 400 mg.
Excipients: corn starch, gelatin, sodium lauryl sulfate, povidone (PVPK-30), purified water, methylparaben, propylparaben, purified talc, sodium starch glycolate, colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, polyethylene titanium dioxide. 1 PC. - blisters (1) - cardboard packs.
Nemozole chewable tablets are oval, capsule-shaped, biconvex, from white to almost white, with a line on one side. 1 tab. albendazole 400 mg. Excipients: corn starch, gelatin, sodium lauryl sulfate, povidone (PVPK-30), purified water, methylparaben, propylparaben, citric acid, purified talc, sodium starch glycolate, silica colloidal dioxide, magnesium stearate, aspartamer, pineapple flavoring … 1 PC. - contour cell packaging (1) - cardboard packs.
Nemozole oral suspension is white. 5 ml albendazole 100 mg. Excipients: microcrystalline cellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, glycerol, benzoic acid, potassium hydrochloride, sorbic acid, polysorbate-80, sorbitol solution, mixed fruit essence, flavoring essence of ice cream, purified water. 20 ml - plastic bottles (1) - cardboard packs
Nemozole is an anthelmintic drug. The main mechanism of action is associated with an inhibitory effect on the polymerization of beta-tubulin, which leads to the destruction of cytoplasmic microtubules of cells of the intestinal tract of helminths; alters the course of biochemical processes (suppresses glucose utilization), blocks the movement of secretory granules and other organelles in the muscle cells of roundworms, causing their death.
The most active against larval forms of cestodes is Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia solium; nematodes - Strongyloides stercolatis.
After oral administration, it is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, unchanged is not detected in blood plasma. Oral bioavailability is low, about 30%. Reception simultaneously with fatty foods increases absorption and the value of Cmax by 5 times.
Storage conditions: List B. The drug should be stored in a dry, dark place, out of reach of children, at temperatures below 25 ° C. The shelf life is 3 years.
Pharmacokinetics of nemosol
Suction. After oral administration, the drug is poorly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, unchanged is not detected in blood plasma. Oral bioavailability is low. Eating fatty foods increases absorption and maximum concentration by 5 times.
Metabolism. Albendazole is rapidly converted in the liver to the primary metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, which also has anthelmintic activity.
Distribution. The maximum plasma concentration of albendazole sulfoxide is reached 2-5 hours after administration. The metabolite is 70% bound to plasma proteins and is completely distributed throughout the body: it is found in urine, bile, liver, in the wall and fluid of helminth cysts, cerebrospinal fluid.
Excretion. Albendazole sulfoxide is converted in the liver to albendazole sulfone (a secondary metabolite) and other oxidized products.
The half-life of albendazole sulfoxide is 8-12 hours. It is excreted through the kidneys in the form of various metabolites. Excretion through the kidneys of albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide is negligible. In patients with impaired renal function, clearance does not change.
In patients with liver damage, bioavailability increases, the maximum concentration of albendazole sulfoxide in the blood plasma doubles, and the half-life is lengthened.
Albendazole induces cytochrome CYP1A2 in human liver cells, accelerates the metabolism of many drugs.
Indications and dosage
- nematodes (ascariasis, enterobiasis, ankylostomiasis, nematosis, trichocephalosis);
- mixed helminthic invasions;
- neurocysticercosis caused by the larval form of Taenia solium;
- echinococcosis of the liver, lungs, peritoneum, caused by the larval form of Echinococcus granulosus;
- as an adjuvant in the surgical treatment of echinococcosis cysts.
Nemozole - Dosage regimen:
Inside, during or after meals. No special training or diet is required. The dosage form is chosen individually, depending on the convenience of taking the drug and the tolerance of the substances included in it.
The dose of the drug is set individually, depending on the type of invasion and the patient's body weight.
The maximum daily dose is 800 mg.
In children, the use of high doses of albendazole for a long time should be avoided, if possible.
With nematodes (including ascariasis, trichocephalosis, noncatorosis)
The standard dose for the treatment of roundworm infestation for adults and children weighing 60 kg or more is 400 mg once a day;
for adults and children weighing less than 60 kg -15 mg / kg body weight once or in 2 divided doses.
With enterobiasis, adults and children over 3 years old take the drug at a dose of 400 mg once. If necessary, after 14 days, repeat the course of treatment in the same dose and in the same regimen.
With strongyloidosis, ankylostomiasis, adults and children over 3 years of age take the drug at a dose of 400 mg once for 3 days. If necessary, after 7 days, repeat the course of treatment in the same doses.
With trichinosis, the drug is taken at 400 mg 2 times a day for 10-14 days. In case of severe invasion and organ damage (myocarditis, pneumonitis, meningoencephalitis), glucocorticosteroid and symptomatic agents are also taken.
In case of toxocariasis, adults and children over 14 years old and weighing more than 60 kg take the drug 400 mg 2 times a day for 10 days, with a body weight of less than 60 kg 200 mg. Requires repeated courses of treatment at intervals of 2 weeks / month. In the course of treatment, it is necessary to control peripheral blood (once every 5-7 days) and aminotransferases at the same time.
With giardiasis: 400 mg once a day for 3 days. For children weighing less than 10 kg -200 mg once a day once for 5 days.
For mixed invasions, the drug is taken at 400 mg 2 times a day, for 3 days. If necessary, the course of treatment can be repeated after 1 month.
For neurocysticercosis and hydatid echinoccosis, patients weighing 60 kg or more take 400 mg 2 times a day, with a body weight less than 60 kg - at the rate of 15 mg / kg body weight per day in 2 divided doses; the maximum daily dose is 800 mg. The course of treatment for neurocysticercosis is 28-30 days (2 days before taking the drug and in the first week of taking glucocorticosteroids), with echinococcosis - 3 cycles of 28 days with a 14-day break between cycles.
Before using the drug, a clinical blood test and a biochemical blood test are required. Treatment is carried out at normal laboratory values. In the course of treatment, blood and aminotransferases are tested every 5-7 days.
With a decrease in leukocytes below 3.0 × 109 and a 2-fold increase in the activity of aminotransferases, it is necessary to suspend treatment until the parameters return to normal.
Drug therapy can be resumed after the laboratory values return to the level that was before the start of therapy, however, laboratory tests should be performed regularly during therapy.
The appointment of hepatoprotectors during treatment and in cases of toxic manifestations is ineffective, it is necessary to cancel the drug.
Albendazole treatment of alveolar echinococcosis is an adjunct.
Doses and regimen of administration of the drug are the same as in hydatid echinococcosis. The duration and course of treatment is determined by the patient's condition and the tolerability of the drug.
- From the digestive system: abnormal liver function with changes in liver function tests (mild or moderate increase in transaminase activity), abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting.
- From the hematopoietic system: leukopenia, granulocytopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia.
- From the side of the central nervous system: headache, dizziness, meningeal symptoms.
- Dermatological reactions: reversible alopecia, skin rash, itching.
- Others: fever, increased blood pressure, acute renal failure, allergic reactions.
- retinal damage;
- hypersensitivity to the drug and other benzimidazole derivatives.
Use with caution in violation of hematopoiesis, abnormal liver function (before and during treatment, liver function should be monitored regularly).
The drug is contraindicated for use during pregnancy. If it is necessary to prescribe the drug during lactation, the question of stopping breastfeeding should be resolved.
Before prescribing the drug, you should make sure that there is no pregnancy in women of childbearing age. During the period of therapy, reliable methods of contraception should be used.
It is recommended that all family members be treated simultaneously.
Monitoring of the cellular composition of the blood is recommended; when leukopenia occurs, drug therapy is stopped.
In neurocysticercosis with eye damage, a retinal examination is necessary before starting treatment due to the risk of aggravating its pathology.
In women of childbearing age, a pregnancy test is performed before starting treatment. During therapy and within 1 month after its completion, reliable contraception is required.
It should be remembered that before using Nemozol, like any other anthelmintic drug, you should thoroughly clean the room, wash children's toys, carry out hygiene procedures daily (morning and evening), and change your underwear. During treatment and several days after taking the drug, it is advisable to change bed linen more often or iron it with a hot iron.
The simultaneous use of albendazole and theophylline may lead to an increased risk of theophylline toxicity (nausea, vomiting, heart palpitations, seizures).
Although single doses of albendazole do not inhibit theophylline metabolism, albendazole still induces cytochrome P4501A in hepatocytes. In this regard, it is recommended to monitor plasma concentrations of theophylline during treatment with albendazole.
Patients should avoid eating foods containing grapefruit while taking albendazole, as plasma concentrations of albendazole may increase, which increases the risk of adverse side effects.
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