Table of contents:
- Klebsiella (Klebsiella infection)
- What is clibsiella in babies
- How an infection can enter the body of a baby
- Causes of Klebsiella in newborns
- Klebsiella symptoms in infants
- Diagnosis of Klebsiella in infants
- Possible consequences of Klebsiella in the baby's body
- Klebsiella treatment in infants
- Prevention of Klebsiella in infants
Video: Klebsiella In Infants: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment
Klebsiella in babies is quite common and is considered a conditionally pathogenic microorganism. If the child is in good health, then most likely Klebsiella will be in the baby's body for a long period, not showing itself in any way. The Klebsiella bacterium is a microorganism that can be attributed to an intermediate group - conditionally pathogenic. That is, a small number of microorganisms does not become the cause of the disease, and an increase in the number leads to various kinds of infectious diseases and many health complications. The bacterium is quite insidious, so everyone should know what complications arise when there are a large number of microorganisms in the body, and how to treat this condition. Klebsiella may appear in infants due to violation of sanitary and epidemiological standards, pathologies of pregnancy,weakening of immunity.
The content of the article:
- 1 Klebsiella (Klebsiella infection)
- 2 What is clibsiella in babies
- 3 How an infection can enter the body of a baby
- 4 Causes of Klebsiella in newborns
5 Symptoms of Klebsiella in infants
- 5.1 Klebsiella pneumonia
- 5.2 Injury of the upper and middle respiratory tract
- 5.3 Defeat of housing and communal services
- 5.4 Damage to the genitourinary system
- 5.5 Sepsis due to Klebsiella
- 6 Diagnosis of Klebsiella in infants
- 7 Possible consequences of Klebsiella in the baby's body
- 8 Treatment of Klebsiella in infants
- 9 Prevention of Klebsiella in infants
Klebsiella (Klebsiella infection)
In the world, diseases caused by opportunistic microorganisms are quite common, among which Klebsiella takes the leading place. Depending on the state of the human immune system, this pathogen can cause both a mild infectious disease and a severe septic manifestation.
Klebsiella (Klebsiella) is a conditionally pathogenic microorganism, which is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family. It received its name from the name of the German scientist, bacteriologist and pathologist who discovered it - Edwin Klebs. Microbiologically, these are gram-negative rods (when stained according to Gram they do not have a specific purple coloration) of small size (1.0 * 6.0 microns), motionless, located both in pairs and alone, as well as in chains.
Klebsiella are facultative anaerobes (capable of multiplying in the absence of oxygen, however, with its presence, they do not lose their vitality). Klebsiella are able to form a capsule, thanks to which they are resistant to the environment. They have O-antigens (about 11) and K-antigens (about 70), which differ within the genus.
Klebsiella in a baby. There are several types of Klebsiella: Klebsiella pneumoniae (Friedlander's stick), Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis (Frisch-Volkovich's stick), Klebsiella ozaenae (Abel-Lavenberg's stick), Klebsiella terrigena, Klebsiella terrigena, Klebsiella The most common causative agents of human diseases are K. pneumoniae (responsible for lung tissue damage) and K. oxytoca (causes intestinal damage).
Also, when exposed to various types of Klebsiella in weakened persons, newborns and infants, damage to the nose and upper respiratory tract, eyes (conjunctivitis), meningitis, sepsis, and damage to the genitourinary system can occur.
Under normal physiological conditions, Klebsiella is a representative of the normal flora of the digestive system (intestines), more often it is K. pneumoniae. Normally, the content of Klebsiella in 1 g of feces should not exceed 105 microbial cells. Klebsiella is also present on the skin, respiratory tract mucosa in humans and warm-blooded animals.
Klebsiella retains its viability in soil, water, dust, food (it can multiply in dairy products in the refrigerator). Klebsiellosis is a fairly common manifestation of nosocomial infection.
What is clibsiella in babies
This microorganism is conditionally pathogenic. This means that Klebsiella reveals disease-causing qualities, therefore, requires treatment only under certain circumstances. The infection is an immobile bacillus that does not form spores and is encased in a capsule that protects it for a long time when exposed to adverse conditions.
Their list includes milk, water, soil, etc. The microorganism easily adapts to heating, average temperatures, but dies under boiling conditions. According to the modern classification, 7 types of infection are known. In this case, Klebsiella in infants is most dangerous for him if it is one of these two types: Klebsiella oxytoca; Klebsiella pneumonia (or Friedland's bacillus).
If the child is healthy, the microorganism can stay in the baby's intestines for a long time without disturbing him. At the same time, it is absolutely not necessary to fight it. As a rule, the provocateur of various diseases in babies is Klebsiella pneumonia, which, when it enters the urinary ducts, brain tissue, blood, joints and, if activated, becomes very dangerous for the baby.
This condition is called Klebsiellosis, and in some cases Klebsiella sepsis develops. In most cases, the infection causes intestinal upset, less often pneumonia.
Often there is a nosocomial form of the disease that develops during treatment in a medical institution or after it.
How an infection can enter the body of a baby
- When drinking water;
- with milk. Including, with breast milk during breastfeeding (as a rule, this happens if a woman's nipples are not thoroughly washed);
- due to non-compliance or insufficient compliance with hygiene rules; By airborne droplets (when sneezing or coughing);
- quite often, Klebsiella enters the child's body with carelessly washed vegetables and fruits, since it is able to live in the soil for some time.
Klebsiella in a baby. Usually, the reason that microorganisms become active and multiply rapidly lies in the weakness of the baby's defenses. Most often, Klebsiella infection is activated due to an insufficient amount of beneficial bacteria in the intestines, in the respiratory organs, on the skin of the crumbs, or in her insufficient immunity.
The background, which is favorable for various kinds of pathologies, can also be: allergy; lack of vitamins, nutrition; bowel disease; antibiotic treatment to suppress beneficial bacteria in the body. With the frequent use of antibiotics, not only the suppression of beneficial microorganisms in the intestine can be observed, but also the adaptation of infection to them, including Klebsiella.
Causes of Klebsiella in newborns
The causative agent of such a common disease among infants is a bacterium that can be found on the mucous membranes of a healthy person and not manifest itself in any way.
As soon as a decrease in immunity is noticed, the infection begins to act and affect the infant's gastrointestinal tract. The obvious reasons that are the causative agents of this infection are recognized:
- weakened immunity in newborns. This especially happens if the baby was not born full-term, and some body systems are not yet ready for active functioning;
- also a hereditary disease may indicate a decrease in the functions of the immune system;
- non-observance of hygienic and sanitary rules in relation to a child is a direct consequence of the occurrence of Klebsiella in newborns. Here it is important to properly care for the baby, wash your hands more often with soap and water so that you directly communicate with the baby. The kid should always be dressed in clean and disinfected underwear;
- edemia in the maternity hospital. All future mothers should be warned about this phenomenon. Consequently, newborns should be kept in regularly disinfected wards. Contact of the newborn with friends and relatives is not allowed until the moment of discharge from the maternity hospital;
- lack of formation of some organs associated with the pathology of pregnancy. This can usually manifest itself along with a disease such as cystic fibrosis in babies.
Therefore, even if your baby was born absolutely healthy, it is recommended to adhere to the rules of personal hygiene as much as possible: monitor the skin of the newborn, regularly bathe and wash the baby.
Klebsiella symptoms in infants
Klebsiella in a baby. Klebsiella pneumonia is caused by a microorganism called Klebsiella pneumoniae. In the process of infection, the lungs are filled with a large number of inflammatory foci, which can be located both independently and merge together. The bacterium Klebsiella pneumonia gives certain symptoms: there is an increase in temperature; general intoxication with all that it implies: nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, weakness; dry cough, purulent / bloody sputum; bad breath; shortness of breath, heaviness in the chest, wheezing.
Unfortunately, the percentage of lethal outcomes with such an infection is high, but Klebsiella pneumonia is afraid of timely intervention. Prompt treatment can change the picture of the course of the disease.
Treatment in adults is more effective than in the weakened category of people mentioned above. A provocative moment for the bacillus klebsiella pneumoniae will be a test rate of 10 to 6 degrees. This happens in those cases when the usual hygiene standards are not observed or in close contact with a person.
But already in the case when the test rates are 10 to the 5th degree and below, it will be much more difficult to determine the infection than at higher rates. In infants, values such as 10 to 7 should be urgently eliminated with antibiotics.
Due to the antibiotic sensitivity of Klebsiella, today this is possible, but it should be remembered that the test rates in the 7th degree are infinitely life-threatening and take measures at lightning speed.
To treat a patient who has been struck by Klebsiella infection, and even with such indicators, is possible only with the most complex "cocktails" of various drugs: antibacterial, antiviral therapy.
Upper and middle airway involvement
Klebsiella in a baby. The defeat of the upper and middle respiratory tract : rhinoscleroma. Frisch's rod, caused by the microorganism clebsiella rhinoscleromatis. The disease spreads to the upper and middle respiratory tract and has its own symptoms: swelling of the upper respiratory tract (in this case, nasal congestion); purulent discharge with blood streaks; unpleasant odor; low-grade fever or high.
In the absence of proper treatment, the smell intensifies, there is, so to speak, a "fetid rhinitis and breathing", the mucous membrane of the nose, as well as bones, atrophies, crusts and nodules that close the airways grow in the cavity. Disease of the trachea and nasopharynx is caused by clebsiella ozaenae.
In the process of infection, a dry cough is formed, separating purulent mucus, with an unpleasant odor from the mouth and, again, a rotten rhinitis. It is accompanied by the following symptoms: laryngeal edema, nasal congestion; purulent discharge during cough or runny nose, with blood streaks; unpleasant odor with discharge; subfebrile or high temperature.
Defeat of utilities
Klebsiella in a baby. Damage to housing and communal services : clebsiella ppneumoniae (sometimes oxytoca) serves as a provocative push, localization is the gastrointestinal tract or the stomach itself. Often, the microbe causes acute gastritis and even ulcers.
At the first stage (3-4 days) it is accompanied by mild symptoms: nausea; stomach pain; heartburn; lack of appetite. In a more advanced situation, when the infection affects the entire large and small intestines, the symptoms intensify: vomiting; sharp, cramping pain; diarrhea, often the stool is accompanied by mucous, bloody discharge; fetid odor.
The acute period lasts 3 to 6 days. The competent approach of the doctor will cure the disease. In this case, the appointment will include not only antibiotics, but also probiotics.
Damage to the genitourinary system
The defeat of the genitourinary system of Klebsiella also has a detrimental effect on the genitourinary system. It will be impossible to diagnose the disease at home, since the symptoms are quite similar to diseases caused by other microorganisms.
Symptoms: cystitis / prostatitis; pyelonephritis; cramps in the lower abdomen; bloody or purulent discharge during urination; temperature; smell. If a microbe is found in the urine, antibacterial treatment will also be prescribed.
Sepsis due to Klebsiella
Klebsiella in a baby. Sepsis is a blood poisoning that causes Klebsiella infection.
Typically, this stage is reached by immunocompromised patients, already infected with any other disease, or infants in poor health.
The reason, as mentioned above, is the endotoxin released during destruction. In parallel, other working systems of the body are damaged: kidneys, liver, lungs, cardiovascular system. It is very, very problematic to cure such patients.
The signs are not specific, characteristic only for this pathology, and therefore it can be quite difficult to recognize them:
- Stool disorders. The stool becomes liquid, contains fragments of undigested food, it can be foamy, sometimes with blood impurities. The color of feces becomes yellowish-green, has a pronounced putrid odor.
- Abdominal pain. The child has a swollen belly, he becomes restless due to pain in the tummy, and increased gas production may be observed.
- Regurgitation. It is clear that any regurgitation should not be considered a sign of a bacterial infection. Abundant regurgitation, a "fountain" exceeding the volume of a tablespoon, should definitely alert parents, since it may indicate the presence of Klebsiella.
- Digestive upset. A child with Klebsiellosis may vomit. He refuses food, appetite suffers.
- Fever. In the acute stage of infection, the temperature can rise to 38.5-39.0 degrees.
Diagnosis of Klebsiella in infants
Klebsiella in a baby. Only an infectious disease doctor can confirm the diagnosis and differentiate the pathogen, based on information obtained in the course of laboratory tests.
However, before prescribing them, the clinician should:
- familiarization with the medical history;
- collection and analysis of life history - to determine the path of penetration of Klebsiella in adults and children;
- a thorough physical examination, which without fail includes palpation of the anterior abdominal wall and measurement of temperature indicators;
- a detailed survey of the patient or his parents (if a baby becomes a patient) - to compile a complete symptomatic picture and the severity of the pathological process.
Laboratory research is based on the implementation of: general clinical analysis of urine; general and biochemical blood test; microscopic examination of feces; bacterial culture of sputum, secreted mucus from the nose, blood and urine; bacterioscopy; serological tests.
In addition, patients need to undergo instrumental examinations, including: x-ray of the sternum; Ultrasound of the peritoneum; CT and MRI.
Possible consequences of Klebsiella in the baby's body
Having found Klebsiella in the child's body, you should not panic. If the treatment is provided on time, then more than what can be expected - this is a mild infectious disease that can be treated without difficulty, in a short time, and without any consequences.
Klebsiella in a baby. If a bacillus is found already at a late stage of development or a decrease in the immune system, be prepared for the possibility of the onset of serious diseases, the treatment of which should be provided to qualified specialists.
There are the following diseases that can appear after Klebsiella: pneumonia (pneumonia); intestinal infections; meningitis; conjunctivitis; a strong form of a cold, flowing into sinusitis.
Don't worry, even if bacteria are found in a child's weak body. Try better to consult with a specialist in a short time, follow all the doctor's instructions, after a thorough medical examination.
Klebsiella treatment in infants
Klebsiella in infants is eliminated using conservative methods of therapy, which are based on the use of antibiotics.
Depending on the course of the disease, the method of taking them will differ:
- klebsiella in the throat - gargle;
- klebsiella in the nose - the medicine is instilled;
- klebsiella in the intestine - oral administration;
- Klebsiella in the vagina or urethra involves the local introduction of a bacteriophage.
In addition, drug therapy is also aimed at using: antipyretic drugs; detoxification and antiemetic substances; anti-inflammatory drugs - indicated for the treatment of Klebsiella pneumonia in infants, older children and adults; antihistamines; immunomodulators and vitamin complexes; probiotics - to eliminate Klebsiella in the intestines.
When the first signs of a stick are found, you should immediately contact a specialist for timely treatment and delivery of the required tests. You will need to pass feces tests, taking the culture from which, the reasons for such a weak state of the child and possible diseases are determined.
Having identified the symptoms, you should not proceed to self-treatment, and most importantly, do not rely on alternative medicine, it is this that leads to a loss of time, and in the worst cases, a worsening of the condition. Only a doctor is able to determine the disease and prescribe treatment, since a frequent result, a disease that is detected with such symptoms is dysbiosis. Do not waste time, ensure your child a speedy recovery by contacting a doctor and making the tests that require.
But if the culture shows the presence of the bacillus, immediately go through all the required doctors, go through the prescribed examinations, after which the experts will conclude about the harm done and the method of treatment for this stage of the disease. Breastfeeding will be an excellent support for a weak body with Klebsiella.
Before breastfeeding, it is worth passing all the required tests, making sure of your own health. An easy and quick treatment will be possible with the help of synbiotics, prebiotics and bacteriophages, only with the timely detection of the disease. This treatment normalizes the intestinal microflora and acts as an antiseptic.
In a severe case of the disease, antibiotics are prescribed, treatment should be under the supervision of doctors. In rare cases, Klebsiella is detected in a child without any signs, then it is required to displace excess microorganisms from the body with the help of certain drugs. Also, treatment is prescribed to increase the body's immune system and normalize the entire intestine.
Experts have developed an algorithm for the treatment of klebsiellosis, which involves the use of antibiotics such as penicillins, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, nifuroxazides.
Klebsiella in a baby. For the treatment of infants, antibiotics are used in extreme cases, most often drugs are used that have an effect exclusively on the infection itself: Bacteriophage Klebsiella polyvalent purified liquid; Complex liquid pyobacteriophage. These drugs have practically no contraindications, while having high efficiency.
At the first manifestations of the disease in a child, consult a doctor. Upon examination, the baby will be diagnosed, and then the most appropriate treatment will be prescribed.
Correct diagnosis of the disease will help determine the exact treatment and the need for antibiotic therapy. There are some norms for the content of Klebsiella in the body of a newborn, so you can limit yourself to non-intensive therapy, that is, taking pribiotics, synbiotics and bacteriophages.
Do not think that a bacterial infection necessarily requires the use of antibiotics. This is logical, but not necessary. Mild Klebsiella infections are treated without antimicrobial agents. The child is prescribed probiotics that will help restore the balance of the intestinal microflora, bacteriophages. It is bacteriophages, specially created viruses that have the ability to destroy bacteria, that are considered the main method of therapy. Treatment with a bacteriophage can be quite long - up to 3 weeks.
Additionally, depending on the symptoms, antipyretic drugs "Paracetamol", "Nurofen" are prescribed, as well as means for oral rehydration, if the baby has prolonged diarrhea or frequent vomiting ("Smecta", "Regidron"). For a more effective bowel cleansing, the so-called intestinal antiseptics - "Furazolidone" and similar preparations can be used.
Prevention of Klebsiella in infants
Klebsiella in a baby. Specific preventive measures, that is, a vaccine against Klebsiella has not yet been developed, to reduce the likelihood of infection, the following rules should be followed:
- consumption of well-washed vegetables and fruits, as well as fully cooked meat and pasteurized milk;
- strengthening immunity;
- elimination of any foci of chronic infections in the body;
- limiting contact with a sick person;
- adequate use of drugs;
- regular check-ups at the clinic with visits to all specialists.
The prognosis is dictated by the age category of the patient, the type of Klebsiella and the severity of the disease. It is worth noting that after the transferred infection, an unstable immunity is formed - this means that the risk of re-development of the disease is not excluded.
You should not stuff your child with pills and syrups at the first signs of any disease, because viruses and bacteria "train" the immune system, which forms antibodies to various pathogens. In an attempt to strengthen the baby's immunity, some parents come to medications - immunostimulants and immunomodulators.
It is not necessary to use such means for preventive purposes, as they can lead to the fact that the child's own immunity begins to "lazy"
The exception is cases of clinically confirmed immunodeficiency, when such drugs are, in fact, a method of therapy.
The concomitant prevention of klebsiellosis consists in observing the rules and norms of hygiene. Adults may not even know that they are carriers of the bacteria, and therefore it is important to wash their hands with soap and water every time after using the toilet before approaching the child. The baby himself also needs to wash his pens if he interacted with pets or returned from a walk on the street. Only one type of Klebsiella is transmitted by airborne droplets, which causes pneumonia. It is quite difficult to protect yourself from it, but it is encouraging that such bacterial pneumonia is not common in children and adults.
Parents of an infected child can also reduce the incidence. After detecting the pathological content of the bacteria in the analyzes, they should limit the baby's communication with peers, other children in the family, stop sharing toys, bedding and dishes until the baby is completely cured.
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