Table of contents:
- What is invasion
- Bacterial invasion
- Helminthic invasion (worms)
- Classification of helminthic invasion
- How can you get infected with helminthic invasion
- What are the signs to recognize helminthic invasion
- Helminthic invasions in humans: which pills to take
- Treatment of nematodes (pinworms, roundworms, etc.)
Video: Invasion In Humans: Varieties, Signs, Symptoms
2023 Author: Riley Dean | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 12:07
Invasion. In medicine, the term "helminthic invasion" is very often used, which means infection with worms. Most often, this disease occurs among children, but among adults it is not uncommon.
The content of the article:
- 1 What is invasion
- 2 Invasion of bacteria
- 3 Helminthic invasion (worms)
- 4 Classification of helminthic invasion
- 5 How can you get infected with helminthic invasion
6 By what signs to recognize helminthic invasion
- 6.1 Infectious diseases as a result of decreased immunity
- 6.2 General malaise as a result of intoxication of the body
- 6.3 Allergic reactions, pathologies of the skin
- 6.4 Gastrointestinal disorders
- 7 Helminthic invasions in humans: which pills to take
8 Treatment of nematodes (pinworms, roundworms, etc.)
8.1 Methods of treatment and prevention
What is invasion
Invasion is infection with animal parasites (protozoa, helminths, etc.). Distinguish between passive invasion (parasites enter the body with food, water, etc.) and active (parasites are actively introduced through the mucous membranes or skin). With intrauterine invasion, the fetus is infected.
Parasitic infestations are very dangerous phenomena that are detrimental to human health. Parasites that have settled in the body, among which there are often round or flat worms, pinworms, as well as roundworms, produce mechanical damage to various organs and mucous membranes.
They can also cause human intoxication. The result of their vital activity are failures in the work of some systems that are vital for a person.
In the human body, worms are held by special devices. So, some have a kind of suction cups, others are fixed with hooks or teeth. Thus, they destroy the mucous membrane, often this process is accompanied by bleeding, which are direct symptoms of invasion.
Invasion is infection with animal parasites (protozoa, helminths, etc.)
Some diseases are caused mainly by the penetration of bacteria into places where they normally do not exist. Thus, the penetration of gram-negative bacilli into the blood can lead to sepsis (endotoxin plays an important role in this).
Pneumococcal pneumonia is usually caused by the penetration of Streptococcus pneumoniae into the lung tissue, accompanied by an inflammatory response.
Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli serotype K1 and Streptococcus agalactiae is associated exclusively with the ability of these pathogens to penetrate and multiply in the meninges. In this case, tissue destruction is primarily due to the multiplication of bacteria and an inflammatory response.
In order for pathogens to penetrate into tissues (especially into the blood), they need to avoid the action of the systems of humoral immunity and cellular immunity. As a rule, this is possible due to the presence of surface polysaccharides - long-chain O-antigens (in S-form gram-negative bacteria) or capsular polysaccharides.
These bacterial polysaccharides prevent complement activation and the formation of opsonins (eg, the C3b fragment). In addition, they prevent the binding of opsonins to the bacterial surface and the interaction of the bound opsonins with phagocytes.
Another mechanism of virulence is the ability of a number of microbes to "copy" the antigenic structure of a macroorganism - this is the so-called molecular mimicry. For example, the serogroup B capsule of Neisseria meningitidis, consisting of sialic acid polymers, is chemically indistinguishable from the oligosaccharide found in brain cells. The M antigen of Streptococcus pyogenes appears to provide resistance to this pathogen against blood phagocytes.
Some pathogens, such as Brucella spp., Yersinia spp., Listeria spp., Francisella tularensis and Mycobacterium spp. being absorbed by phagocytes, they are not destroyed inside them. Even if the disease proceeds without invasion and bacteremia (for example, dysentery), only strains that have an O-antigen in the composition of lipopolysaccharides are pathogenic.
Even if the disease proceeds without invasion and bacteremia (for example, dysentery), only strains that have an O-antigen in lipopolysaccharides are pathogenic
An immunochemical study of the capsule polysaccharides revealed a wide variety of their chemical structure, which is achieved by combining monosaccharides. For example, just three different hexoses can make up over 300 different compounds with different antigenic properties.
At the same time, only six peptides can be composed of three amino acids. The chemical diversity of polysaccharides helps pathogenic bacteria overcome protective barriers.
Capsule polysaccharides have been successfully used to prepare vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis and vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae. A vaccine against Streptococcus agalactiae, a vaccine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a vaccine against Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus aureus vaccine, and Staphylococcus epidermidis vaccine.
In all cases, when the capsular polysaccharide of a particular bacterium is immunogenic, but not toxic, it can serve as a basis for a vaccine.
Most of the encapsulated bacteria practically lose their virulence when the capsule formation is experimentally disturbed, which indicates the importance of this structure in the pathogenesis of infection. A number of bacteria produce capsular antigens only at a certain stage of the infectious process, for example, during hematogenous spread, but not during colonization and invasion.
In all cases, when the capsular polysaccharide of a particular bacterium is immunogenic, but not toxic, it can serve as a basis for a vaccine
Bacteria can infect the deep layers of the mucosa, getting there through the epithelial cells and interepithelial space.
In the penetration and reproduction of virulent strains of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, outer membrane proteins play an important role. Staphylococci and streptococci share a number of enzymes, such as hyaluronidase, lipases, nucleases, and hemolysins, which are involved in the destruction of cells and extracellular matrix, allowing bacteria to penetrate deep-lying tissues and blood.
Pathogens that multiply in the gastrointestinal tract often penetrate through the mucous membrane into the blood and, with an insufficient immune response, cause bacteremia. Yersinia enterocolitica penetrates the mucous membrane with the help of a special protein called invasin.
Some bacteria (for example, Brucella spp.) Are taken up by phagocytes (for example, neutrophils) and, without being digested, are transported a considerable distance from the site of introduction. However, sloughing off viable epithelial cells with attached or absorbed bacteria has been shown to protect tissues (eg, bladder) from infection.
Some microorganisms cause disease only when natural anatomical barriers are violated. In this case, bacterial factors do not play a large role in the invasion. An example is peritonitis caused by Bacteroides fragilis or other intestinal bacteria from perforation of the appendix or injury to the intestine.
Helminthic invasion (worms)
Worm infestation (helminthiasis) or simply worms is a disease caused by parasitic worms - worms (helminths).
Settling inside the human body, worms consume almost everything: vitamins, microelements, hormones, proteins, carbohydrates, sugar, etc. Taking vital elements from the body, worms release toxins, absorb erythrocytes and suppress the immune system.
Over time, helminths paralyze the immune system, resulting in damage to the epithelial, connective, glandular, lymphoid tissues of organs.
Without timely treatment of worms, such changes can lead to atherosclerosis, diseases of the veins and blood vessels, ischemic heart disease, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, up to cancer.
Worms can affect almost any organ - from the liver, lungs and heart to the brain, not just the gastrointestinal tract.
Some symptoms of helminthic invasion:
- chronic fatigue;
- violation of appetite;
- increased salivation;
- gastrointestinal disorders;
- Pain in muscles and joints;
- allergies and skin problems;
- disorders of the nervous system;
- overweight or underweight.
In the opinion of professionals, such a diagnosis of worms is not very informative for the following reasons:
- the need for multiple sampling of feces;
- feces must be looked at warm, which is difficult to perform in outpatient treatment;
- the ability to diagnose worms that are only in the intestines.
Treatment of worms with medication alone usually does not lead to the desired result. At best, this treatment allows you to get rid of worms only for a while.
The fact is that worms and other parasites settle in the body when the immune system allows them to feel unpunished. Therefore, when treating worms, it is important to find out the causes of these conditions.
Comprehensive diagnostics allows you to accurately determine the type of worms and the reasons that created the conditions for their development in the body. On the basis of this diagnostic information, an individual treatment regimen for worms is prescribed. Treatment is aimed both at combating directly with worms, and at correcting the work of the whole organism.
Classification of helminthic invasion
According to ICD-10, helminthiases are classified according to codes B65-B83, there are so many of them, and the entire parasitic group is classified by codes A00-B99. The list of parasitic worms and diseases that carry them is quite impressive.
The well-known roundworms, pinworms, lamblia, tapeworms are also hidden under the codes; and less common dracunculiasis, rishta, onchocerciasis, filariasis, pulmonary eosinophilia.
All of them give severe helminthic invasion in adults with symptoms that are understandable only to doctors and professionals. In such a situation, self-medication is not just dangerous, but deadly, because letting helminths settle in is knowingly destroying yourself.
Helminthic invasion appears in active and passive states. It depends on the type of invasion pathogens penetration - through the skin or with contaminated water, dust, with insect bites.
Science divides all parasitic worms into types:
- protozoan and prostate are the simplest;
- helminthiases are worms;
- acaroses are mites;
- entomoses are insects.
Parasites are classified according to the place of localization:
- tissue - this is schistosomiasis, toxocariasis;
- in the intestine - it is enterobiasis, strongyloidosis, ascariasis;
- in the tissues of the lungs - these are tominxosis, paragonimosis;
- invasions of the hepatobiliary system are fascioliasis, opisthorchiasis.
In Russia, cases of invasion by 70 varieties of worms have been officially registered, while more than 260 types of individuals are known. Statistics show an increase in the number of diseases with lamblia, pinworms, roundworms, opisthorchis.
How can you get infected with helminthic invasion
To protect yourself, you need to know about 4 ways of spreading and infection with worm eggs:
- Through soil and water - geohelminthiases. They develop in sand, soil and water, then enter the human body and begin to lay eggs there. Further, the eggs of the worm get into the external environment together with excrement and wait in the wings to infect a new person. Eating poorly washed vegetables and fruits, dirty hands, dust on food can lead to human infection with geohelminths. Some parasite eggs enter the human body through the skin of the feet and ankles.
- Through direct contact. Worms in pets and humans are transmitted through hand contact, games, and joint activities.
- Through the use of contaminated food of animal origin - biohelminthiasis. Eating raw and poorly processed meat (shashlik, bacon, meat preserves, home-made game) and fish (sushi, dried fish, fish preserves) is potentially dangerous. There is a possibility of infection with intestinal infections and biohelminths.
- With insect bites. This type of infection is rare. This includes intestinal myiasis, cantariasis, and scoleciasis. Do not confuse parasite eggs and insect larvae, which are also deposited under animal skins and human skin (for example, gadfly larvae).
What are the signs to recognize helminthic invasion
Signs of the appearance of worms in humans are obvious and hidden. The obvious ones include "unreasonable" weight loss, pale appearance (anemia of the skin), chronic fatigue, nighttime itching in the anal area. These manifestations are well known and are indicative of contamination.
Often there are cases of helminthic invasion, in which diseases of the internal organs are aggravated, diseases that have not previously manifested themselves occur. These are considered hidden signs. A person is taken to the treatment of many diseases, and the cause is ignored.
At the same time, therapy does not bring results. Here are some examples of such cases.
Infectious diseases as a result of decreased immunity
Parasites, being in the human body, consume many nutrients and release toxic substances. Such circumstances significantly reduce the patient's immunity. An exacerbation of chronic diseases, various inflammatory processes in the nasopharynx may begin.
Treatment of sinusitis or stomatitis in the standard way is pointless. It is important to rule out the cause. In girls and women, inflammation of the appendages of the uterus, vulvovaginitis, vaginosis of various origins can often begin.
Popular signs say: if a person snores or grinds his teeth in a dream, it means that he needs to be treated for parasites. But this information is not confirmed by medical science.
General malaise as a result of intoxication of the body
The more serious the helminthic invasion of the patient, the more harmful substances the parasites release. This has a detrimental effect on the well-being and the nervous system of adults and children.
An example of this is migraine, dizziness, joint pain. Overcoming the nausea, the person takes painkillers, but the pains return after a short time: the cause of the discomfort was ignored.
In children, disorders of the nervous system are accompanied by irritability, apathy, and aggressiveness. If your child begins to sleep poorly, to talk in a dream, to have nightmares, or has slipped into school, then it's time to start preventing helminthiasis.
Allergic reactions, pathologies of the skin
The waste products of worms are perceived as triggers of allergens. Skin reactions (rash, itching, rashes, peeling of the skin) are the minimum of symptoms that can occur with the onset of an allergy.
Skin reactions (rash, itching, rashes, peeling of the skin) are the minimum of symptoms that can occur when an allergy has begun
There is a possibility of general reactions of the body: exacerbation of asthma, rhinitis, cough. Sometimes helminthic invasion is accompanied by fragility and hair loss, cracking of the skin on the heels, and peeling of nails.
Depending on the severity of the infection, symptoms can vary from mild to severe forms of the disorder. From mild nausea and diarrhea, to chronic flatulence, constipation, vomiting, pain in the navel and hypochondrium. Worms in tissues do not affect the gastrointestinal tract as much as intestinal parasites.
Helminthic invasions in humans: which pills to take
Self-medication is not recommended. In our country, about 60 types of worms are widespread, and for each it is necessary to select the appropriate preparations. Usually, doctors use 10 types of drugs and their analogues, according to the type of helminths. These medicines have a mild detoxifying effect on the patient's body.
Taking medications should be carried out for sure, when all tests have been passed and the identification of parasites has been passed. Some drugs, acting on the eggs of worms, do not affect adults. And vice versa. Therefore, with self-medication, you need to carefully read the instructions for the medicine.
Usually, with helminthic invasions, 2-3 repeated courses are prescribed at once. This is due to the high likelihood of reinfection (reinfection).
Treatment of nematodes (pinworms, roundworms, etc.)
|Basic medicine (active ingredient)||Release form||Price||Analogue||Release form||Price|
|Piperazine (as Piperazine adipate)||pills||from 9 rub.||Piperazine-Darnitsa||Oral solution [for children], tablets||From 30 rubles.|
|Pirantel.||Oral suspension, film-coated tablets||From 29 rubles.||(1) Helmintox, (2) Combantrine, (3) Nemocide||(1) Oral suspension, film-coated tablets. (2) Oral suspension, film-coated tablets. (3) Oral suspension, film-coated tablets||(1) From 69 rub. (2) From 20 rubles. (3) From 150 rubles.|
|Mebendazole||Tablets, suspension, baby syrup||From 20 rubles.||Vermox, Vermacar, Mebex, Vero-Mebendazole, Thermox, Wormin||Tablets, suspension, baby syrup||From 20 rubles.|
|Albendazole||pills||From 195 rub.||Nemozol, Gelmodol-VM, Vormil||Tablets, suspension, baby syrup||From 166 rub.|
|Levamisole||pills||From 100 rubles.||Dekaris||pills||From 80 rubles.|
|Carbendacim||pills||From 80 rubles.||Medamin||pills||From 80 rubles.|
Treatment and prevention methods
Invasive diseases can be caused by completely different parasites, therefore, treatment has many directions. Moreover, any therapy is aimed at eliminating parasites. It is based on the use of drugs that have an anthelmintic effect.
Once in the body of the parasite, the agent suppresses its enzymatic activity, adversely affecting life. Some drugs tend to stop synthesizing proteins of microorganisms, which leads to their death.
These drugs are:
Also, in cases of illness caused by infection, apply:
But before one or another remedy is prescribed, it is necessary to carry out analyzes and identify the presence of helminths and their type. Therefore, when signs of illness appear, it is important not to self-medicate, but to seek qualified help.
Find out more:
- Worms in humans - symptoms, diagnosis, treatment
- A child has worms - causes, signs, symptoms and treatment
- Helminth worms. What worms live in a person. Types of parasites