Toxoplasmosis - Symptoms And Treatment Methods For The Disease

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Toxoplasmosis - Symptoms And Treatment Methods For The Disease
Toxoplasmosis - Symptoms And Treatment Methods For The Disease

Video: Toxoplasmosis - Symptoms And Treatment Methods For The Disease

Video: Toxoplasmosis - Symptoms And Treatment Methods For The Disease
Video: Toxoplasmosis | Acquired vs Congenital | Signs, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment 2023, May
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Toxoplasmosis - Symptoms differ for acute and chronic forms of the disease. The incubation period can last from 3 days to several months. Only general weakness, muscle pain, dyspeptic disorders, malaise, decreased performance are possible. In some cases, with an acute form of toxoplasmosis, the temperature rises to 38 ° C; often enlarged lymph nodes, which are welded together. Toxoplasmosis is a dangerous parasitic disease that can be asymptomatic for a long time. There are often cases when toxoplasmosis is diagnosed in women while carrying a child - during this period, toxoplasmosis poses a great threat to the health of a pregnant woman and an unborn baby. A source of toxoplasmosis infection can be a pet, contaminated land or water.

The content of the article:

  • 1 What is toxoplasmosis
  • 2 Pathogenesis (what happens?) During toxoplasmosis
  • 3 Ways of infection with toxoplasmosis
  • 4 Types of disease. Classification of toxoplasmosis
  • 5 Symptoms of toxoplasmosis
  • 6 Toxoplasmosis - symptoms and pregnancy
  • 7 Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and newborns
  • 8 Treatment of toxoplasmosis

    8.1 Toxoplasmosis - symptoms and recipes of traditional medicine

  • 9 Preventive measures for toxoplasmosis

What is toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease of humans and animals that is caused by the parasitic protist Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis is a fairly common disease in humans and animals. Its prevalence in the world is extremely high. So, in the countries of Africa and South America, the incidence of toxoplasmosis reaches 90%. In North America and Europe, toxoplasmosis occurs in 30-50% of the population.

What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it
What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it

It is noteworthy that the vast majority of people infected with toxoplasmosis do not experience any difficulties, since the disease is asymptomatic. At the same time, toxoplasmosis can occur in a wide variety of clinical forms, accompanied by various symptoms.

Pathogenesis (what happens?) During toxoplasmosis

The life cycle of Toxoplasma includes the stages of sexual and asexual reproduction. Toxoplasmosis is common in many countries. A person becomes infected from pets, most often from cats, which are the final host of the parasite. In their body, sexual reproduction of the pathogen occurs.

Animals sick with toxoplasmosis excrete parasites with urine, saliva, milk. Man is an intermediate master.

Infection occurs alimentary (most often), drip, through damaged skin and mucous membranes, transmissible (with an arthropod bite) by way. Perhaps intrauterine infection during the penetration of the parasite from the mother to the fetus through the placenta. Toxoplasma is infected from 50 to 80% of the adult population.

Ways of infection with toxoplasmosis

Human infection occurs when eating meat products and eggs that have not undergone sufficient heat treatment. The possibility of infection is not excluded when the pathogen gets on the mucous membranes and damaged skin, in a transmissible and other way. Intrauterine infection is also observed.

Factors that can contribute to the appearance of the parasite in the body and increase the risk of toxoplasmosis:

  • touching your mouth with dirty hands after contact with the ground, after cleaning cat litter, or any other contact with cat excrement;
  • eating raw or undercooked meat, especially pork, lamb or venison;
  • touching your mouth after contact with raw or undercooked / undercooked meat;
  • organ transplant or blood transfusion (very rare);
  • if a woman is pregnant and contracted toxoplasmosis, the infection can be transmitted from her to the child, which can lead to serious consequences.

In the human body, Toxoplasma multiplies in the intestines, spreads by lymphogenous and hematogenous pathways. The phase of lymphogenous drift (lymph nodes increase and become inflamed) is replaced by hematogenous dissimination. The stage of finding the parasite in the blood is short (several days). Getting into the internal organs, Toxoplasma causes inflammation in them.

What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it
What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it

Toxoplasmosis - symptoms. The nervous system, retina, liver, myocardium are especially often affected. In these organs, Toxoplasma are intracellular and extracellular. Clusters of parasites are called pseudocysts.

Toxoplasmas are able to form cysts in tissues, causing a state of latent infection. The activation of the parasite occurs under conditions unfavorable for the macroorganism and a decrease in its immunological reactivity. In the pathogenesis of toxoplasmotic lesions of the nervous system, focal inflammation (necrotizing encephalitis), dyscirculatory disorders associated with vasculitis, obstruction of the cerebrospinal fluid, leading to hydro- and microcephaly are important.

The most gross morphological changes in the nervous system are observed in children. Macroscopic examination reveals expansion of the ventricles with a periventricular zone of necrosis. Scars replacing areas of necrosis, obliteration of the interventricular foramen and the lateral aperture of the IV ventricle are found. Hydrocephalus can be expressed, leading to thinning and deformation of the hemispheric substance.

Toxoplasmosis - symptoms. Morphological manifestations of toxoplasmosis of the brain in adults are diverse. On microscopic examination, miliary granulomas scattered throughout the brain and spinal cord are most characteristic, consisting of large epithelioid cells, lymphocytes, monocytes, and sometimes eosinophils. Granulomas contain numerous parasites, surrounded by a zone of edema with necrotic foci caused by vasculitis.

What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it
What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it

Calcification of small foci is typical for toxoplasmosis. In the presence of toxoplasma in the subarachnoid space, serous-productive leptomeningitis occurs. Most of those infected have no clinical manifestations of the disease. In some patients, sluggish chronic forms are observed and, extremely rarely, acute, with a severe course of the disease.

With intrauterine infection in the first months of pregnancy, miscarriage and fetal death often occur. The possibility of intrauterine fetal deformities and the birth of children with developmental defects is not excluded. If the infection occurs late in pregnancy, a child is born with generalized toxoplasmosis.

Types of the disease. Classification of toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis - symptoms. There are acute and chronic toxoplasmosis.

What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it
What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it

The latter is characterized by sluggish symptoms or its absence. Toxoplasmosis can also be congenital and acquired:

  • congenital toxoplasmosis: this form of the disease affects the fetus even during intrauterine development. Congenital toxoplasmosis is passed from mother to fetus. This is a rather dangerous disease that can even lead to intrauterine fetal death or severe damage to various internal organs of the unborn child (in particular, the nervous system, eyes and others);
  • acquired toxoplasmosis: This form of the disease is less dangerous. The disease can be acute or chronic. Acute acquired toxoplasmosis can be symptomatic of typhoid fever (occur with high fever, enlargement of the liver, spleen), or proceed with a predominant lesion of the nervous system. In the latter variant, the main manifestations of toxoplasmosis are headaches, convulsions, paralysis, vomiting, and others.

Often, acquired toxoplasmosis becomes chronic. Chronic acquired toxoplasmosis is often accompanied by mild fever, headaches, and enlarged liver and lymph nodes. In some cases, chronic acquired toxoplasmosis is accompanied by damage to the eyes, heart, nervous system and other organs and systems. For most people, chronic toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic.

Symptoms of toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis - symptoms. The enlargement of the lymph nodes is painless, but the density increases noticeably (the size of the lymph nodes in toxoplasmosis is from 0.5 to 4 cm). At the same time, there is an increase in different groups of peripheral lymph nodes (cervical, axillary, inguinal, etc.). There may be an increase in the lymph nodes of the abdominal cavity, mediastinum.

Sometimes a rash in the form of papules, vaguely resembling roseola, is detected. Often, the liver and spleen enlarge, sometimes a picture of myocarditis develops, which has an infectious-allergic origin. Pains in the heart, palpitations, shortness of breath appear. The onset of the disease can be hidden.

What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it
What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it

In more severe cases of toxoplasmosis, the central nervous system may be damaged in the form of encephalitis or meningoencephalitis (sharp headache, vomiting, seizures with loss of consciousness, damage to the cranial nerves, various mental disorders). Clouding syndromes are characteristic.

Acute acquired toxoplasmosis sometimes becomes chronic with local lesions of organs and systems. The complaints of patients are similar: headache, weakness, emotional instability, slightly increased temperature.

Concomitant diseases may develop: myocarditis, chronic pneumonia, bronchitis, chronic gastritis, enterocolitis, cholecystitis, hepatitis, arthralgia, myositis, muscle atrophy, in women - adnexitis, endometritis, which is accompanied by menstrual irregularities, infertility.

In chronic acquired toxoplasmosis, brain damage occurs over many years. Exacerbations occur periodically. The symptoms of the disease are diverse: they include impaired intelligence, memory, asthenia, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, arachnoiditis, encephalomyelopolyradiculoneuritis. The development of seizures resembling epileptic seizures is possible.

With exacerbations, there are sudden attacks of anxiety or fear, confusion. Against the background of an asthenic state, depression, hypochondria may develop. Eye lesions with toxoplasmosis are very diverse: hemorrhages occur in the retina or under it, optic nerve atrophy is possible, etc.

Toxoplasmosis - symptoms and pregnancy

Pregnancy is a special period when you need to be more attentive to your body, to protect it from diseases, because it is known that they can adversely affect the child. However, one cannot completely hide from diseases. Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is no exception. Many mothers, having heard such a diagnosis from a doctor, immediately panic. But don't worry ahead of time. First of all, it is worth finding out what this disease is and how dangerous it is.

In many pregnant women, toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic. You can find out about the disease only after passing tests for the presence of infection. Laboratory indicators will confirm toxoplasmosis during pregnancy.

What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it
What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it

Toxoplasmosis - symptoms depend on its forms. There are several types: acute; cerebral; congenital; ocular; common; chronic.

  • In acute toxoplasmosis, the following symptoms are observed: enlargement of the axillary lymph nodes, a feeling of weakness, an increase in body temperature up to 38.0-39.0 degrees, muscle pain;
  • for cerebral toxoplasmosis, headaches, high fever, loss of sensitivity in some areas of the body, paralysis, coma are characteristic;
  • with congenital toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, the symptoms will be as follows: deafness, jaundice, rash, large or small size of the head of the born baby, delayed psychomotor development;
  • the main symptoms of ocular toxoplasmosis: blurred vision, pain in the eyes, blindness;
  • common toxoplasmosis proceeds without damage to the brain and eyes. Its manifestations are different, as they are caused by inflammation of the heart muscle, lungs, etc. Inflamed organs may stop working;

Chronic toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is manifested by irritability, memory loss, neurotic reactions, nausea, bloating, and constipation. The most important symptoms are specific myositis and myocarditis.

The severity of the disease does not increase over time, but rather decreases. If a woman contracted toxoplasmosis during pregnancy in the first trimester, then the probability that the fetus will die is very high. A miscarriage almost always occurs. Even if a child is born, he may have serious damage to the brain, spleen, liver, eyes.

Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and newborns

Toxoplasmosis - symptoms. The most severe forms of toxoplasmosis occur in children who are infected from the mother during fetal development. Thus, the most important is the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. If IgM and IgG antibodies are found in a pregnant woman's blood, it is recommended to do an IgG avidity test.

What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it
What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it

High IgG avidity (usually more than 40%) at 12-14 weeks of gestation practically excludes the possibility of infection during pregnancy (and, accordingly, the likelihood of infection of the fetus). However, low avidity of antibodies is not yet an indicator of a recent infection - in this case, after 2-3 weeks, the test is repeated and how much the amount of antibodies has increased (antibody titer) is determined.

To find out whether the infection has been transmitted from a pregnant woman to a fetus, amniotic fluid is often analyzed for the presence of Toxoplasma DNA - a diagnostic method called polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

If the PCR is negative, the fetus is perfectly healthy. To clarify the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and determine the extent of the spread of the infection, additional examinations are carried out:

  1. instrumental diagnostic methods include many methods to identify the manifestations of toxoplasmosis. So, if there are symptoms of damage to the central nervous system (brain), do a computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, which can determine the foci of brain inflammation caused by toxoplasma;
  2. biopsy - taking a piece of tissue infected with toxoplasma is rarely used for examination under a microscope.

Toxoplasmosis treatment

It is almost impossible to completely remove the pathogen from the body, since Toxoplasma forms cysts that are resistant to the action of all drugs.

Toxoplasmosis treatment is needed in people with pronounced symptoms and low immune status. Treatment is usually long-term and includes taking chemotherapy drugs, antibiotics, or a combination of both.

Treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis is more difficult. In this case, chemotherapeutic agents do not give positive results, therefore, treatment is aimed at strengthening the patient's immunity.

Toxoplasmosis - symptoms. Chloridine and sulfa drugs. For children under 1 year old, take a dose of 1 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day. The daily dose for children from one year to 3 years is 0.01 g; from 4 to 7 years old - 0.02 g; from 8 to 11 years old - 0.03 g; from 12 to 15 years old - 0.04 g (the daily dose is given in 2 doses).

Etazole or sulfadimezine. The daily dose is 0.1-0.2 g per 1 kg of body weight.

For children over 1 year old, instead of etazole or sulfadimezine, prolonged-release sulfa drugs (sulfadimethoxine) are prescribed. 3 courses of treatment are carried out for 5-7 days with a break of 7-10 days. In the absence of a sufficient effect, up to 5 courses of treatment can be carried out.

What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it
What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it

Prednisolone. The dose is determined at the rate of 1 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day, taking into account the daily rhythm of the adrenal function; vitamins B, B6, ascorbic and folic acids.

With exacerbations of congenital toxoplasmosis, treatment is repeated. Prescribe fortifying and symptomatic therapy. Treatment is most effective in the acute phase of the disease, in which case it can even lead to complete recovery. In the final phase, the effect is satisfactory, in the chronic phase, treatment is ineffective.

Toxoplasmosis - symptoms and recipes of traditional medicine

1 tsp dry chopped herb of mad cucumber pour 1 glass of boiling silicon water, insist in a sealed container in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes, cool at room temperature for 45 minutes, drain. Take 1 tbsp. l. 3 times a day 15 minutes before meals. The plant is poisonous

Toxoplasmosis - symptoms. 1 tsp Pour 1 cup of boiling silicon water over dry crushed leaves of the common beetroot, insist in a sealed container in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes, cool at room temperature for 45 minutes, drain. Take 1 tbsp. l. 3 times a day 15 minutes before meals. Internal use of gristle, as a poisonous plant, requires caution;

1 tsp yellow jaundice seeds pour 1 glass of boiling silicon water, insist in a sealed container in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes, cool at room temperature for 45 minutes, drain. Take 1 tbsp. l. 3 times a day 15 minutes before meals. Internal use of jaundice, as a poisonous plant, requires caution. The powder of the roots of the European hoof is effectively taken at 0.2-0.5 g 2-3 times a day before meals. Internal use of the hoof, as a poisonous plant, requires caution

What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it
What is toxoplasmosis and how to treat it

1 tsp Pour 2 cups of boiling silicon water over dry crushed herb of common groundwort, leave for 1 hour, drain. Take 1 tbsp. l. 3 times daily before meals. Internal use of the wild rose, as a poisonous plant, requires caution. The juice of the herb of the oak wood, as well as the common wild rose, diluted in a ratio of 1:10 with cool boiled silicon water, take 1 tbsp. l. Internal use of the wild rose, as a poisonous plant, requires caution

1 tbsp. l. For ripe alder buckthorn (brittle) buckthorn fruits, pour 1 glass of boiling silicon water, insist in a sealed container in a boiling water bath for 30 minutes, cool at room temperature for 10 minutes, drain. Take 1/4 cup 3 times a day 30 minutes before meals. Internal use of buckthorn, as a poisonous plant, requires caution;

do enemas with tansy infusion. 1 tbsp. l. pour dry flowers with 0.5 liters of boiling water and insist for 3 hours, drain. Make an enema at night. Attention! This remedy is contraindicated for children. 1 tbsp. l. mix tansy flower powder with two chopped cloves of garlic, cook for 10 minutes in 2 glasses of milk in a sealed container over low heat

Preventive measures for toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis - symptoms. Prevention is most important during pregnancy, and for those women who have never met with Toxoplasma before and do not have immunity to it:

  • when working in the garden, wear gloves so that the soil does not come into contact with your skin. There may be microcracks on the skin, and toxoplasma in the ground. Wash vegetables and fruits thoroughly;
  • it is also better to cut raw meat with gloves, at least after that you need to wash your hands. Thoroughly fry or boil the meat, refuse steaks with blood during pregnancy;

If you have a kitty, entrust the cleaning of its toilet to someone else, otherwise there are traces of old feces on the cat's bath;

  • you should not kiss your beloved pet, since in case of acute infection of a cat, Toxoplasma can be excreted from it with saliva and nasal discharge;
  • cat feces can be tested to determine if it is infected with toxoplasmosis. If your cat turns out to be so clean that she has never encountered toxoplasmosis, then it is necessary to protect her from the disease in the future (at least for the period of your pregnancy): do not feed raw meat, do not allow communication with relatives and do not let her go outside.

Find out more:

  • Toxoplasmosis in humans: signs, symptoms and treatment
  • Toxoplasmosis - causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

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