Symptoms Of Dysentery. Causes, Diagnosis And Treatment

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Symptoms Of Dysentery. Causes, Diagnosis And Treatment
Symptoms Of Dysentery. Causes, Diagnosis And Treatment

Video: Symptoms Of Dysentery. Causes, Diagnosis And Treatment

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Video: What is Dysentery? Causes, Signs and symptoms, Diagnosis and treatment. 2023, February
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Dysentery is a disease that affects the human intestines and can occur in both children and adults. Symptoms of dysentery are extremely unpleasant: along with fever and general malaise, loose stools are observed, the frequency of which can exceed 20 times a day. An infectious disease occurs in combination with the defeat of the large intestine, and it mainly affects its final section. The bacterium of the shigella family acts as the causative agent of dysentery, which, in fact, is the basis for defining dysentery as shigellosis.

The content of the article:

  • 1 What is dysentery
  • 2 Causative agent of dysentery
  • 3 Symptoms of dysentery

    • 3.1 Mild dysentery
    • 3.2 Moderate form
    • 3.3 Severe form
    • 3.4 Forms of dysentery and variants of its course
  • 4 Features of the course of the disease dysentery
  • 5 Treatment of dysentery in adults
  • 6 Diet for dysentery in adults
  • 7 Traditional methods of treating dysentery
  • 8 Complications of dysentery

What is dysentery

Dysentery - This infection most commonly affects the intestines of a person. The disease is popularly called "dirty hands disease", since microorganisms that infect patients can be in dirty water, or on the surface of poorly washed fruits. In this article, we will take a closer look at the signs of dysentery in adults, in what ways the disease is treated, and whether it is possible to protect oneself from infection.

Symptoms of dysentery in adults
Symptoms of dysentery in adults

Symptoms of dysentery. Dysentery is common not only in adults but also in children. Outbreaks of the disease often occur in kindergartens, as one infected child becomes dangerous to other children. In order not to become infected with parasites, it is necessary to carefully observe sanitary standards and follow preventive measures. Below we will talk about what are the signs of dysentery in adults and children, what methods are used for treatment, and whether it is possible to protect oneself from infection.

Based on the available data, it can be noted that every year dysentery affects about 120 million people around the world, and it is most often diagnosed in residents of countries with a poor sanitary culture, as well as countries with a significant population density.

This disease can occur at any time of the year, but the most frequent time of its activation is summer. The reason for this exacerbation is a number of factors, which include drinking water from polluted reservoirs, as well as swimming in lakes and rivers. Naturally, the widespread use of fruits in food during this period becomes an important factor, which in frequent cases occurs without preliminary washing.

Symptoms of dysentery in adults
Symptoms of dysentery in adults

In particular, dangerous "sources" for the development of the disease under consideration are workers in the water supply and catering systems, if they have this diagnosis. It is through them that pathogenic microorganisms can enter water and food, as a result of which massive outbreaks of this disease are not excluded later.

Symptoms of dysentery. The duration of the incubation period in a situation with dysentery is, as a rule, about 4 days, the transmission of the disease, as you might guess from the information slightly above, occurs mainly through drinking and food.

Meanwhile, household infection with an infection is not excluded, which occurs through the use of common household items (switches, door handles, dishes, etc.) with patients. Dirty hands play an exclusive role in the spread of dysentery, and it is for this reason that strict adherence to the rules related to personal hygiene is extremely important to prevent dysentery (which, in fact, is also defined as a disease of dirty hands).

Causative agent of dysentery

Symptoms of dysentery. The infection is caused by various types of dysentery sticks. As a rule, the most active species are Sonne and Flexner, which settle in the folds of the colon. The causative agent of dysentery enters the external environment with the feces of a sick person. Bacteria tend to accumulate in various foods and water. The spread of the disease is facilitated by the low sanitary culture of the population, non-observance of the rules of personal hygiene, and late appeal to medical institutions.

When diagnosed with dysentery, the symptoms are associated with the poisoning of the body with poisonous toxins, which are absorbed by the walls of the colon and rectum, enter the bloodstream and cause general intoxication. The most severely such poisoning is tolerated by young children and the elderly, whose immune system is not strong enough to effectively resist poisonous substances.

Dysentery symptoms

Symptoms of dysentery in adults
Symptoms of dysentery in adults

The disease begins quickly. At the beginning, a general intoxication syndrome develops, characterized by an increase in body temperature, chills, a feeling of heat, weakness, decreased appetite, headache, and decreased blood pressure.

Symptoms of dysentery. The defeat of the gastrointestinal tract is manifested by pain in the abdomen, at first dull, spread throughout the abdomen, of a constant nature. Then they become more acute, cramping, localized in the lower abdomen, often on the left. Pain usually worsens before bowel movement.

Mild dysentery

A mild form of dysentery. In a mild course of the disease, the fever is short-lived, from several hours to 1-2 days, the body temperature, as a rule, rises to 38 ° C. Patients are worried about moderate abdominal pain, mainly before the act of bowel movement.

The stool has a mushy or semi-liquid consistency, the frequency of bowel movements is up to 10 times a day, the admixture of mucus and blood is not visible. Intoxication and diarrhea persist for 1-3 days. Full recovery occurs in 2-3 weeks.

Moderate form

Symptoms of dysentery. Moderate form: The onset of this form of dysentery is rapid. The body temperature with chills rises to 38 ~ 39 ° C and stays at this level from several hours to 2-4 days. Patients are worried about general weakness, headache, dizziness, lack of appetite. Intestinal disorders, as a rule, join in the next 2-3 hours from the onset of the disease.

Symptoms of dysentery in adults
Symptoms of dysentery in adults

Patients have periodic cramping pains in the lower abdomen, frequent false urge to defecate, a feeling of incompleteness of the act of defecation. Stool frequency reaches 10-20 times a day. The stool is scanty, often consisting of one mucus streaked with blood; there is increased irritability, pallor of the skin. The tongue is covered with a thick white coating, dryish. Intoxication and diarrhea last from 2 to 4-5 days. Complete healing of the intestinal mucosa and normalization of all body functions occur not earlier than 1-1.5 months.

Severe form

Symptoms of dysentery. Severe form: a severe course of dysentery is characterized by a very rapid development of the disease, pronounced intoxication, profound disturbances in the activity of the cardiovascular system. The disease begins extremely quickly.

Body temperature with chills quickly rises to 40 ° C and above, patients complain of severe headache, severe general weakness, increased chilliness, especially in the extremities, dizziness when getting out of bed, complete lack of appetite. Often there is nausea, vomiting, hiccups.

Patients are worried about abdominal pain, accompanied by frequent urge to defecate and urinate. Stool more than 20 times a day, often the number of bowel movements is difficult to count ("stool without counting"). The height of the disease lasts 5-10 days. Recovery occurs slowly, up to 3-4 weeks, complete normalization of the intestinal mucosa occurs after 2 months or more. The diagnosis of chronic dysentery is established if the disease lasts more than 3 months.

Forms of dysentery and options for its course

Based on the peculiarities of the clinic of the disease under consideration, as well as from its duration, the following variants and forms of it can be determined: Acute dysentery:

  • colitis typical dysentery;
  • atypical dysentery (it, in turn, can be gastroenterocolitic and gastroenteric);

Chronic dysentery (in different variants of the course according to the severity of manifestations):

  • continuous chronic dysentery;
  • dysentery chronic recurrent.

Continuous chronic dysentery.An extremely rare variant of the development of the disease. The main characteristic features of it are profound changes affecting, respectively, the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms characteristic of intoxication are either absent or mild. Patients have complaints of abdominal pain, as well as daily diarrhea, which appears up to several times a day. The nature of the stool is mushy, it often has a greenish tint. As for remissions, that is, weakening / disappearance of the manifestations of the disease, they are absent in this variant of its course. It should be noted that the signs of dysentery in this case are subject to their own gradual progression. Patients lose weight, become irritable, in addition, they develop hypovitaminosis and dysbiosis with symptoms corresponding to these conditions.Considering in a general manner chronic dysentery, as well as the protracted form of this disease, it can be noted that now the features of the appearance and subsequent development are not fully understood. While there is a discussion about the role of autoimmune processes in the development of these states. They, in turn, are accompanied by various types of factors: diseases suffered by patients earlier and simultaneously with dysentery (in particular, it is important to take into account those in the gastrointestinal tract), disorders at the level of immunological reactions during the acute period of the disease, alcohol consumption and violation of the prescribed diet and so on. In addition to such types of dysentery, its course can also be characterized by a factor in the form of shigellosis bacterial excretion, which, in turn, can be subclinical or convalescent.as well as the protracted form of this disease, it can be noted that now the features of the appearance and subsequent development are not fully understood. While there is a discussion about the role of autoimmune processes in the development of these states. They, in turn, are accompanied by various types of factors: diseases suffered by patients earlier and simultaneously with dysentery (especially here it is important to take into account those in the gastrointestinal tract), disorders at the level of immunological reactions during the acute period of the disease, alcohol consumption and violation of the prescribed diet and so on. In addition to such types of dysentery, its course can also be characterized by a factor in the form of shigellosis bacterial excretion, which, in turn, can be subclinical or convalescent.as well as the protracted form of this disease, it can be noted that now the features of the appearance and subsequent development are not fully understood. While there is a discussion about the role of autoimmune processes in the development of these states. They, in turn, are accompanied by various types of factors: diseases suffered by patients earlier and simultaneously with dysentery (especially here it is important to take into account those in the gastrointestinal tract), disorders at the level of immunological reactions during the acute period of the disease, alcohol consumption and violation of the prescribed diet and so on. In addition to such types of dysentery, its course can also be characterized by a factor in the form of shigellosis bacterial excretion, which, in turn, can be subclinical or convalescent.that now the features of the appearance and subsequent development are not fully understood. While there is a discussion about the role of autoimmune processes in the development of these states. They, in turn, are accompanied by various types of factors: diseases suffered by patients earlier and simultaneously with dysentery (especially here it is important to take into account those in the gastrointestinal tract), disorders at the level of immunological reactions during the acute period of the disease, alcohol consumption and violation of the prescribed diet and so on. In addition to such types of dysentery, its course can also be characterized by a factor in the form of shigellosis bacterial excretion, which, in turn, can be subclinical or convalescent.that now the features of the appearance and subsequent development are not fully understood. While there is a discussion about the role of autoimmune processes in the development of these states. They, in turn, are accompanied by various types of factors: diseases suffered by patients earlier and simultaneously with dysentery (especially here it is important to take into account those in the gastrointestinal tract), disorders at the level of immunological reactions during the acute period of the disease, alcohol consumption and violation of the prescribed diet and so on. In addition to such types of dysentery, its course can also be characterized by a factor in the form of shigellosis bacterial excretion, which, in turn, can be subclinical or convalescent.While there is a discussion about the role of autoimmune processes in the development of these states. They, in turn, are accompanied by various types of factors: diseases suffered by patients earlier and simultaneously with dysentery (especially here it is important to take into account those in the gastrointestinal tract), disorders at the level of immunological reactions during the acute period of the disease, alcohol consumption and violation of the prescribed diet and so on. In addition to such types of dysentery, its course can also be characterized by a factor in the form of shigellosis bacterial excretion, which, in turn, can be subclinical or convalescent.While there is a discussion about the role of autoimmune processes in the development of these states. They, in turn, are accompanied by various types of factors: diseases suffered by patients earlier and simultaneously with dysentery (especially here it is important to take into account those in the gastrointestinal tract), disorders at the level of immunological reactions during the acute period of the disease, alcohol consumption and violation of the prescribed diet and so on. In addition to such types of dysentery, its course can also be characterized by a factor in the form of shigellosis bacterial excretion, which, in turn, can be subclinical or convalescent.violations at the level of immunological reactions in the acute period of the course of the disease, the use of alcoholic beverages and violation of the prescribed diet, etc. In addition to such types of dysentery, its course can also be characterized by a factor in the form of shigellosis bacterial excretion, which, in turn, can be subclinical or convalescent.violations at the level of immunological reactions in the acute period of the course of the disease, the use of alcoholic beverages and violation of the prescribed diet, etc. In addition to such types of dysentery, its course can also be characterized by a factor in the form of shigellosis bacterial excretion, which, in turn, can be subclinical or convalescent.

Features of the course of the disease dysentery

In the disease under consideration, two main phases are distinguished, namely, the small intestinal phase and the colonic phase. The severity of their manifestations is determined by specific options for the course of dysentery. At the time of infection, the infection overcomes the nonspecific type of protective factors concentrated in the oral cavity, as well as the barrier in the form of stomach acid. Further, they attach to enterocytes in the small intestine, followed by the production of cytotoxins and enterotoxins from their side.

Symptoms of dysentery. The release of hemolysin by them provokes the development of an inflammatory process that is relevant for the disease. The cytotoxic enterotoxin secreted by Shigella has some support for inflammation.

Symptoms of dysentery in adults
Symptoms of dysentery in adults

To date, there is information about various types of Shigella, the appearance of which is caused by certain types of toxins. In any case, the effect of Shigella in combination with a response from the macroorganism leads to the development of disorders in the functions of the intestines, as well as to serous edema and destruction of the mucous membrane.

Against the background of the inflammatory process, the possibility of the formation of erosive formations and ulcers is not excluded. It should also be noted that the course of dysentery is characterized by the addition to this disease of phenomena characteristic of dysbacteriosis, which, in turn, can act both as a concomitant disease of dysentery and as a disease that precedes it. As a result, exudative diarrhea with hypermotor dyskinesia subsequently develops.

Treatment of dysentery in adults

Symptoms of dysentery. For dysentery, or, as many call it, "dirty hands disease", symptoms are similar to many other intestinal infections, but there is also a feature. An admixture of mucus and blood appears in the patient's feces, which indicates damage to the intestinal wall. In this article, we will talk about the treatment of dysentery in adults, as well as the diet that should be followed for this disease.

Treatment of dysentery is based not only on the use of drugs, a strict diet is necessary, since the intestinal mucosa is affected.

The therapy is based on antibiotic treatment. Currently, antibacterial drugs of the fluoroquinolone group (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin) and the tetracycline series are recognized as effective in the treatment of dysentery in adults. The drugs are administered orally and taken before meals. Intravenous antibiotics are prescribed only for severe disease. The course of treatment is 5-7 days, depending on the severity of dysentery.

Symptoms of dysentery in adults
Symptoms of dysentery in adults

Since patients with dysentery are at risk of developing dehydration due to diarrhea, rehydration therapy is necessary. With mild to moderate severity of the disease, oral rehydration is usually sufficient, it is recommended to drink 2-4 liters of fluid per day. You need to drink liquid often, but in small portions up to 50 ml.

It is recommended to drink boiled water, saline solution, rehydron or oralit solutions, sweet weak tea, compotes and berry jelly. If the disease is severe and the body loses a large amount of fluid due to diarrhea and vomiting, then intravenous fluid administration (saline, 5% glucose solution, rheopolyglucin) may be necessary. The appointment of such infusion therapy is also necessary for severe intoxication syndrome.

Symptoms of dysentery. To remove the toxins produced by bacteria from the body, it is recommended to take adsorbing agents (enterosgel, polyphepan, smecta). To improve digestion, enzyme preparations are prescribed (mezim, creon, pancreatin). Elimination of intestinal spasm and reduction of pain syndrome is possible with the help of antispasmodics (no-shpa, papaverine hydrochloride).

As a result of damage to the intestinal wall, as well as due to the intake of antibiotics, a violation of the normal composition of the intestinal microflora very often occurs. For the treatment and prevention of dysbiosis, courses of eubiotics (linex, bifidumbacterin) are prescribed.

Diet for dysentery in adults

A therapeutic diet is very important for any diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and dysentery is no exception. In the acute period of the disease, patients are limited in food until the symptoms disappear. During this period, patients should drink liquid, and after the condition improves, the diet expands.

Symptoms of dysentery in adults
Symptoms of dysentery in adults

From special treatment tables for patients with dysentery, diet No. 4B, recommended for patients during the recovery period, is suitable. Doctors advise adhering to such a diet for at least a month after recovery.

Dishes are cooked in a steamer, oven or boiled, coarse food must be chopped, as it can injure the damaged intestinal mucosa. You should eat at least 6 times a day in small portions.

Symptoms of dysentery. It is recommended to eat lean meats, poultry and fish, loose cereals on water, dried bread, dairy products, vegetables that do not contain coarse fiber (carrots, potatoes, cauliflower), fruits and berries without a peel. From drinks allowed tea, fruit compotes, rosehip broth, fruit juices (except grape), diluted with boiled water. From sweets, preference should be given to marmalade, marshmallow and marshmallow.

Symptoms of dysentery in adults
Symptoms of dysentery in adults

Soups based on fatty broths, fatty meats and fish, semi-finished products, canned food, marinades, smoked meats, hot spices are excluded from the diet. It is not recommended to consume legumes from vegetables. You should not drink coffee, cocoa, carbonated drinks.

Dieting helps to heal the disease much faster and reduce the risk of complications.

Traditional methods of treating dysentery

Symptoms of dysentery. How to treat dysentery at home? To eliminate the symptoms of the disease yourself, you can use medicinal herbs. There are many effective recipes that help improve the condition with the development of this ailment:

medicinal tea: to make it, you need to take in equal parts the rhizome of burnet, marshmallow and cinquefoil From the resulting composition, you should prepare teas, which are recommended to be consumed throughout the day. It is important to take into account that with dysentery, you need to drink at least 4 liters of liquid. To make a healthy drink, you need to take 3 tablespoons of the collection, add 1 liter of boiling water and leave for half an hour. Take the product strained. This recipe is only suitable for adult patients. If you need to cure the child, you will have to remove the burnet root from the composition. This plant can harm the baby

Symptoms of dysentery in adults
Symptoms of dysentery in adults
  • antibacterial and soothing collection: everyone knows that many herbs have antibacterial properties, but at the same time do not lead to a violation of the intestinal microflora. With the development of dysentery, it is useful to prepare a composition based on 100 g of St. John's wort, 50 g of yarrow and the same amount of cancerous neck. broth, you need to take a couple of tablespoons of the mixture, add 1 liter of cool water and put on the stove. It is recommended to cook the composition for 30 minutes, then cool and strain. Divide the resulting drink into 3 parts and take in the morning, afternoon and evening;
  • Blackberry root: this remedy helps to cope even with severe diarrhea with bloody impurities. In addition, blackberry roots perfectly cleanse the body of toxic substances, reduce the temperature, and soothe the digestive organs.

    This product is recommended for adults and children. To make a useful product, you need to take a tablespoon of raw materials, add 500 ml of water and cook on low heat for 10 minutes after boiling. You can put honey and lemon juice in the finished product. Take 250 ml 4-5 times a day;

  • Symptoms of dysentery in adults
    Symptoms of dysentery in adults

    herbal collection: to cope with the symptoms of dysentery, you need to mix 100 g of iris root, yarrow herb and meadow geranium root, then take 3 tablespoons of the composition, add 1 liter of water and bring to a boil. Prepare the composition for 30 minutes. Take 1 glass of the cooled and strained product. It is recommended to do this 4 times a day;

golden rod: a plant called the golden rod will help eliminate the symptoms of the disease. To make a useful product, a couple of tablespoons of raw materials must be mixed with 1 liter of water and boiled until boiled 2 times. Then the broth should be divided into 3 parts and consumed in the morning, afternoon and evening

Tea: To eliminate the symptoms of diarrhea, ordinary tea - black or green - should be chewed in the mouth for 2 minutes, and then washed down with a little water. This procedure should be repeated 1-3 times during the day;

  • Symptoms of dysentery in adults
    Symptoms of dysentery in adults

    chicken stomach: this offal must be thoroughly washed, rinsed with hot water, then separate the film located on top from each ventricle. Place the resulting films on paper and dry them until they become solid. Then grind to a powder and take with dysentery with water. This should be done 3 times a day;

Rice: This product is successful in treating a wide variety of intestinal disorders. To eliminate the symptoms of dysentery, you need to boil porridge in water and eat it in small portions throughout the day. It is equally useful to use rice water. To make it, it is recommended to take a spoonful of cereal, add 250 ml of cool water and boil for 5 minutes. Strain the product and take 100 ml 2-4 times a day

Blackberry leaves can help cope with diarrhea. To do this, mix a large spoonful of raw materials with a glass of boiling water and put on fire. Wait until it boils and remove from the stove. Then the container must be wrapped and left for another 40 minutes. Strain and drink a glass 3 times a day. With a mild course of the disease, the dosage can be halved;

Symptoms of dysentery in adults
Symptoms of dysentery in adults

starch: Common potato starch is considered a very effective natural sorbent. To cope with the symptoms of dysentery, you need to take 1 small spoonful of the product, mix with 100 ml of cool water and drink in small sips. In just 2 hours, starch will help stop diarrhea

saline solution: To cope with diarrhea, you need to drink a spoonful of saline solution on an empty stomach in the morning. To do this, you need to mix water and salt to get a thick enough mixture. After using the product, you cannot eat food. Drinking is allowed only after a few hours. Usually, 1 procedure is enough to eliminate the unpleasant symptoms of pathology

Complications of dysentery

Symptoms of dysentery. If you do not start treatment on time, there is a risk of developing dangerous complications. Some consequences can be fatal. The main complications of dysentery include the following:

  • prolapse of the rectum - associated with strong stress during bowel movements. This condition is often observed in young children;
  • bleeding - is the result of intestinal ulceration in advanced cases of the disease. In such a situation, the patient needs to be urgently hospitalized;
  • dehydration;
  • kidney failure;
  • toxic megacolon - this condition is accompanied by stretching and thinning of the walls of the colon. As a consequence, the toxins produced by the bacteria enter the bloodstream. This leads to severe poisoning. In most cases, this complication is fatal;
  • bacteremia - in such a situation, bacterial microorganisms from the intestine enter the bloodstream. This greatly aggravates the patient's condition and often leads to death;
  • weakness for a long time after illness - this condition is often affected by small children.

Dysentery is a dangerous pathology that can cause serious complications. To cope with the disease, it is very important to take special medications, use folk recipes and adhere to a special diet. In difficult cases, you should definitely consult a doctor.

Find out more:

  • Dysentery - causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
  • Bacteria parasites: species, examples, habitats
  • Dysentery vaccination for adults - indications for vaccination

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