Chlamydia In Men - Treatment And Prevention

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Chlamydia In Men - Treatment And Prevention
Chlamydia In Men - Treatment And Prevention

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Video: Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of chlamydia | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy 2023, February
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Chlamydia in men is a very insidious sexually transmitted disease. The course of the disease is asymptomatic, which complicates treatment, since the disease becomes chronic, threatening complications and infertility. Prevention of chlamydia in men is the main way to prevent the disease. As you know, the surest thing is to use a condom.

The content of the article:

  • 1 Chlamydia in men
  • 2 What does the causative agent of chlamydia look like?
  • 3 How is chlamydia transmitted
  • 4 Causes of the disease - Chlamydia in men
  • 5 Signs of chlamydial infection in men
  • 6 Symptoms of chlamydia
  • 7 Diagnosis of chlamydia - Chlamydia in men

    7.1 Methods of laboratory diagnosis of chlamydia

  • 8 Features of chlamydial infection in men
  • 9 Treatment of chlamydia in men

    • 9.1 What can you do
    • 9.2 How the doctor can help
  • 10 Antibiotics in the treatment of chlamydia
  • 11 Stimulation of immunity - Chlamydia in men
  • 12 Enzymes in the treatment of chlamydia
  • 13 Complications of chlamydia - Chlamydia in men
  • 14 Prevention of chlamydia in men

Chlamydia in men

Chlamydia is one of the most common diseases among sexually transmitted infections. This pathology is caused by intracellular pathogens - chlamydia. According to the World Health Organization, chlamydia in men occurs in 50% of cases, and mainly in the sexually active age - from 18 to 45 years. Chlamydia is most often sexually transmitted through unprotected intimate contact.

Chlamydia in men
Chlamydia in men

Chlamydia is one of the most common diseases among sexually transmitted infections.

Domestic contamination is extremely rare, so there is no need to fear that public or household items such as common utensils, towels, washcloths, toilet seats, etc. can become the cause of infection. However, it makes sense to follow the rules of personal hygiene.

Chlamydia is one of the most common diseases among sexually transmitted infections. This pathology is caused by intracellular pathogens - chlamydia. According to the World Health Organization, chlamydia in men occurs in 50% of cases, and mainly in the sexually active age - from 18 to 45 years.

Chlamydia is most often sexually transmitted through unprotected intimate contact. Domestic contamination is extremely rare, so there is no need to fear that public or household items such as common dishes, towels, washcloths, and seats can become the cause of infection.

  • The first signs of pain appear during urination, turning from lungs to sharp, even strong over time. There may be pain in the lumbar region, as well as in the groin, testicles and scrotum.
  • For the acute course of the disease, the appearance of a subfebrile temperature is characteristic. General intoxication of the body leads to the development of weakness with increased fatigue.
  • Due to itching and burning in the urethra affected by chlamydia, urination is difficult, the first drops become cloudy. In the urine and semen, streaks of pus appear, traces of blood, urine acquires an unpleasant odor.
  • The development of inflammation is signaled by mucopurulent or watery discharge, sometimes with blood at the end of the process. After sleep, men register the appearance of scanty secretions such as the vitreous body.
  • Puffiness. Obvious consequences of infection, such as redness and swelling, appear on the outside of the urethral opening, and the testicles also swell.

What does the causative agent of chlamydia look like?

Chlamydia is an intracellular bacterium - a parasite. Independently in the external environment, its life span is calculated in minutes. It contains a biological capsule and genetic material.

Chlamydia in men
Chlamydia in men

When damaged, it appears inside the host cell and begins to parasitism. Using the building material and energy of the host cell, chlamydia actively multiplies within the host cell. After the end of the reproduction cycle of chlamydia, the infected cell dies, and many daughter chlamydia are released into the intercellular space, which continue to infect all new cells.

How is chlamydia spread

Chlamydia in men. Sexual transmission of infection. You can only become infected with this infection sexually. Swimming pool use, shared toilet lid, shared towel, etc. cannot cause infection.

In the external environment, chlamydia cannot maintain its viability. Therefore, household contact, airborne droplets and other methods of transmission of chlamydial infection are unlikely.

Infection can occur with any type of sexual intercourse: oral, genital, anal. Therefore, the only way to protect yourself from infection is to remain faithful to your sexual partner or the correct use of reliable means of protection.

Chlamydia in men
Chlamydia in men

Chlamydia infection occurs on average in a quarter of cases with every unprotected sexual intercourse. However, women are more susceptible to this infection, so they are more likely to become infected.

Causes of the disease - Chlamydia in men

Infection with chlamydia usually occurs through sexual contact, but transmission does not occur in all cases: if 3 out of 4 people become infected with gonorrhea from a sick partner during sexual intercourse, then chlamydia is 1 in 4.

Sexual contact of any kind matters: vaginal, oral or anal. Women are more susceptible to chlamydia.

Contact-household transmission is also possible.

Children can become infected with chlamydia when passing through an infected birth canal, as well as in utero.

The incubation period (the time from infection until the first symptoms appear) is 2-3 weeks.

Signs of chlamydial infection in men

Chlamydia in men causes an inflammatory process of the urogenital organs, most often in the form of urethritis (inflammation of the urethra). Chlamydial urethritis in men in most cases is asymptomatic or has minimal manifestations.

Chlamydia in men. Patients complain of unpleasant or painful sensations, itching and burning when urinating, as well as scanty discharge from the urethra like a "morning drop".

In rare cases, bloody discharge may occur, mainly at the end of ejaculation or urination. In some patients, local symptoms are accompanied by a slight increase in temperature to subfebrile numbers, malaise and general weakness.

Chlamydia in men
Chlamydia in men

When chlamydia enters the testicular membrane (from the posterior urethra), inflammation of the appendages (epididymitis) occurs

When chlamydia enters the testicle membranes (from the posterior urethra), inflammation of the appendages (epididymitis) occurs.

Acute epididymitis is characterized by the appearance of redness and edema of the scrotum on the side of the inflamed epididymis, accompanied by rather severe pain in the testicle, penis, radiating to the lower back and sacral region, as well as a violation of the general condition and fever over 38.5 ° C.

In a chronic course, general symptoms are most often absent, and the disease manifests itself in the form of a slight increase and compaction of the epididymis, while pain is not very pronounced, and in some cases it may be absent altogether.

Chlamydia symptoms

Patients may complain of white, yellow, or clear discharge from the urethra (men), vagina (women). They may have an unpleasant odor or a yellowish tinge from normal discharge. Sometimes there is soreness, burning sensation during urination or intercourse, redness and itching at the external opening of the urethra.

Chlamydia in men
Chlamydia in men

With the development of complications, patients complain of pain in the perineum, scrotum, rectum, women are worried about pain in the lower abdomen, in the lumbar region.

Chlamydia in men differs from many other sexually transmitted infections in that it affects not only the genitals, but also the lower parts of the urinary system.

The clinical picture is often erased, the disease can be asymptomatic for a long time and be diagnosed only with the development of complications.

Chlamydia Diagnosis - Chlamydia in Men

If you suspect you have chlamydia or any other sexually transmitted infection, you should consult a doctor as soon as possible (chlamydia in men is treated by urologists, in women by gynecologists).

Chlamydia diagnosis is difficult because Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular parasite. For analyzes, depending on the research method, scraping from mucous membranes, blood, urine and semen in men can be.

Currently, it is possible to identify the pathogen itself or antibodies to it in the blood. Your doctor will advise you on the most appropriate test method.

Methods for laboratory diagnosis of chlamydia

Diagnosis of chlamydial genital infection is a rather complex problem. The difficulty of identifying this pathogenic microorganism is associated with the peculiarities of its life and functioning. First of all, it should be pointed out that chlamydia is an intracellular microorganism.

Chlamydia in men
Chlamydia in men

Diagnosis of chlamydial genital infection is a complex problem.

This means that chlamydia is able to penetrate into cells and live in the host cell. The cells of the host are most often the cells of the epithelium of the mucous membranes of the genital organs of men and women.

It is with this intracellular form of life that numerous relapses of chronic diseases of the genitourinary organs are associated. That is, chlamydia remains inside the cells, and when favorable conditions come for it, it leaves the host cell again, causing an exacerbation of the chronic inflammatory process.

Numerous attempts to treat chronic infections of the genitourinary organs, including those caused by chlamydia, lead to the chronicity of the process and the emergence of resistant forms of the pathogen. Very often, together with chlamydial infection, other infections caused by opportunistic microorganisms are also combined.

Conditionally pathogenic microorganisms are present in the human body in normal conditions, however, with a decrease in immune defense, they can cause the development of infectious inflammatory diseases.

Chlamydia in men
Chlamydia in men

Conditionally pathogenic microorganisms are present in the human body and normally, however, with a decrease in immune defense, they can cause the development of infectious inflammatory diseases

A decrease in immune defense can be caused by a variety of factors, including chronic persistent intracellular chlamydia.

So, conditionally, all methods for diagnosing chlamydia can be divided according to the principles underlying this or that method.

Today, the following methods are used:

  • express tests
  • smear
  • immune fluorescence reaction (RIF)
  • serological methods (complement fixation test - RSK)
  • enzyme immunoassay (ELISA)
  • culture method (bacteriological culture)
  • DNA methods (polymerase chain reaction - PCR, ligase chain reaction - LGC, transcriptional amplification - TA, DNA probe method)

Let's consider each of the methods in more detail. To date, it is impossible to single out the best method for diagnosing chlamydia, since each of the methods has advantages and disadvantages. And for maximum efficiency in detecting a pathogenic microorganism - chlamydia - the most appropriate methods in a specific clinical situation should be combined.

Features of chlamydial infection in men

Chlamydia in men. Most often, urogenital chlamydia in men is asymptomatic as a chronic infection and clinically does not manifest itself for a long time. In this case, the pathogen not only parasitizes on the mucous membrane, but also penetrates into the submucosal connective tissue layer, spreads to other organs of the genitourinary tract.

The severity of inflammation depends on local protective and general compensatory mechanisms.

It has been established that under the influence of stress, hormonal disorders and other unfavorable factors, the chlamydial process can be activated, leading to an exacerbation of the infection and the appearance of the above symptoms, as well as the development of complications.

In some cases, the carriage of chlamydia may occur - a condition in which even minimal signs of inflammation are not observed, despite the fact that the pathogen itself can persist for a long time on the mucous membranes of the urogenital tract.

This condition can be diagnosed only with the help of modern high-precision laboratory diagnostic methods, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction).

Chlamydia treatment in men

Immunological disorders play an important role in the development of chlamydial infection. Chlamydia immunity is unstable and short-lived and does not protect against the subsequent introduction of pathogens. All this requires complex therapy with the obligatory inclusion of drugs that correct and increase the protective functions of the body.

In addition to antibacterial agents, immunomodulatory drugs are prescribed that can activate the immune system to fight infection and increase the body's resistance to infectious agents.

Moreover, the use of only one anti-microbial drug leads to the emergence of resistant strains of chlamydia.

In the complex therapy of chlamydia, drugs from the group of recombinant alpha-interferons can be used, in particular VIFERON® Suppositories, which, in addition to the immunomodulatory effect, also has an anti-Chlamydial effect.

Chlamydia in men
Chlamydia in men

In the complex therapy of chlamydia, drugs from the group of recombinant alpha interferons can be used

Clinical studies have shown that the use of the drug in a combined treatment regimen allows the majority of men infected with chlamydial infection to normalize the immune status and block the reproduction and spread of the pathogen.

Against the background of such therapy, there is a significant improvement in the outflow of stagnant secretions in the prostate gland, an increase in the efficiency of the lymphatic and blood vessels in the urogenital organs and a decrease in the incidence of complications.

In addition, it was found that the interaction of the components of the VIFERON® Suppositories (alpha 2b interferon, vitamins E and C) can reduce the course dose and duration of antibiotic use, as well as significantly reduce the side effects associated with the action of the latter.

What can you do

If you have a chlamydial infection, you should strongly advise your sex partner to get tested. Explain to her / him that the infection may be asymptomatic and asymptomatic.

Chlamydia in men
Chlamydia in men

If you have a chlamydial infection, you should strongly advise your sex partner to get tested

Unfortunately, maintaining constant contact with infection can lead to reinfection and treatment failure. During treatment from sexual intercourse, you should abstain or use a condom.

How the doctor can help

In the treatment of chlamydial infection, antibacterial drugs from the group of macrolides, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones are currently used.

The choice of antibiotic depends on the severity of the infection. Do not self-medicate. Only a doctor can correctly select a drug.

After completing the full course of treatment, you may be advised to undergo retests to confirm a cure. As a rule, for this, blood is examined by ELISA or PCR.

Antibiotics in the treatment of chlamydia

Since chlamydiae are parasites that live inside cells, their treatment requires the use of antibiotics that can penetrate and accumulate in the affected cells.

Chlamydia in men
Chlamydia in men

In each case of chlamydia, ONLY an INDIVIDUAL treatment regimen should be drawn up, which will take into account the nature of chlamydia, the sensitivity of chlamydia to antibiotics (determined based on the antibiotic sensitivity culture), the presence of concomitant infections, the severity and duration of chlamydia, its localization - which organs were affected by the infection.

Taking into account all these factors, the doctor calculates for you the individual doses of antibiotics and the duration of the treatment cycle - a course of several cycles of chlamydia development will be required so that we can talk about the effectiveness of treatment.

It is especially worth noting that if, along with chlamydia, other genital infections are found - mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, cytomegalovirus, gonococci, etc., then the treatment is also complicated. The doctor will have to develop a scheme, taking into account the sensitivity of each of the infection found to the prescribed drugs.

In the course of treatment, drugs are also prescribed to prevent the multiplication of fungal infections in the body that has been exposed to antibiotics.

Stimulation of immunity - Chlamydia in men

First of all, the normalization of immunity is achieved due to a decrease in neuropsychic stress, a rational daily routine. An active lifestyle, balanced nutrition and a positive attitude have a significant effect on the body.

Chlamydia in men
Chlamydia in men

However, in the treatment of an infectious and inflammatory process, these recommendations are supplemented by the appointment of immunostimulating drugs: vitamins from the group of antioxidants (A, C, E). These vitamins reduce the toxic effects of infectious agents on the body.

Timely and quantitatively adequate intake of these vitamins in the body contributes to the active restoration of damaged tissues.

Immunal - this herbal preparation stimulates the activity of immune cells. Due to this, the processes of elimination of infection from the body and restoration of damaged tissues are more active.

Immunostimulating therapy is prescribed by the attending physician on an individual basis. The use of these drugs is possible only after excluding possible contraindications.

Enzymes in the treatment of chlamydia

Chlamydia in men. An important role in the treatment of chlamydia is played by the appointment of special drugs - enzymes. How do enzymes "help"? And enzymes are invaluable. First, they return the membrane permeability in diseased cells to normal. Thus, higher concentrations of antibiotics at lower doses of antibiotics sink into the cell.

Chlamydia in men
Chlamydia in men

Also, enzymes help to reduce the body's allergic sensitivity to medications. Third, enzymes provide anti-edema and pain relieving effects.

Enzymes enhance the action of antibiotics not only inside the cell, but also increase their concentration in the blood by an average of 20–40%, which makes it possible to transfer large doses of antibiotics to diseased organs at a lower dosage. Finally, enzymes help restore peripheral circulation.

Complications of Chlamydia - Chlamydia in Men

In men, the most common complication is inflammation of the epididymis, epididymitis. In women, inflammatory diseases of the uterus and appendages.

It should be understood that the presence of a chronic inflammatory process in the organs responsible for reproductive function can cause the development of infertility in men and women, lead to the development of various pregnancy pathologies (frozen pregnancy, miscarriages, premature birth, fetal development pathology).

That is why it is so important to undergo treatment on time.

Prevention of chlamydia in men

The basis for the prevention of chlamydia is the rejection of promiscuous sexual intercourse. The use of condoms is not always sufficient to prevent infection.

It is very important to inform your sexual partners about the disease, even if they are not worried about anything, and to convince them to undergo examination and treatment for chlamydia.

Remember that asymptomatic disease does not reduce the risk of complications.

Recommendations for the prevention of chlamydia:

  • In case of casual sex, it is necessary to use a condom.
  • If the keeping of marital fidelity is impossible or your regular sexual partner does not inspire confidence, then an annual bacteriological and serological examination for sexually transmitted infections is necessary.
  • In the event that you have chlamydia, you must immediately start treatment.
  • During the period of treatment, all sexual intercourse must be stopped. Condom use is not 100% guaranteed. Oral or anal intercourse is no less dangerous for chlamydia infection than genital intercourse.
  • After a full course of treatment, it is necessary to carry out a mandatory diagnosis of cure. Only after the exclusion of chlamydial infection is it possible to stop treatment and resume sexual intercourse.

Find out more:

  • Treatment of chlamydia with Azithromycin in men and women
  • Chlamydia - symptoms, causes, signs and treatment
  • Chlamydia. Diagnostics, analyzes, results and treatment

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