Table of contents:
- Worms in children
- Signs of worms entering the child's body
- Ways of penetration of worms into the body
- Types of worms in children - Worms in a child
- Symptoms and consequences of helminthic invasion
- Methods for the diagnosis of helminthiasis - Worms in a child
- The principles of therapy for helminthiasis in children
- Medication for the treatment of helminthiasis in children
- Is it possible to get infected with worms from other children
- Prevention of infection with worms
Video: Worms In A Child - Symptoms And Treatment
Worms in a child. They can affect the body of a child at any age. Worms in a child can manifest themselves with various symptoms, signs of parasites in the body can often be confused with other diseases. In order to prevent the appearance of worms in the child's body, it is necessary to observe preventive measures, as well as to strengthen the immune system. Children's immunity is not sufficiently strong, therefore it is not able to independently cope with helminthic invasion when infected.
The content of the article:
- 1 Worms in children
2 Signs of worms entering the child's body
- 2.1 Worms in children: common signs
- 2.2 Worms in children: particular signs
- 3 Ways of penetration of worms into the body
- 4 Types of worms in children - Worms in a child
- 5 Symptoms and consequences of helminthic invasion
- 6 Methods for diagnosing helminthiasis - Worms in a child
- 7 Principles of therapy for helminthiasis in children
8 Drug treatment for helminthiasis in children
8.1 Anthelmintic drugs - Worms in a child
- 9 Is it possible to get infected with worms from other children
- 10 Prevention of infection with worms
Worms in children
Worms in children are found in different types and at different stages of development. And it depends on this what signs the worms will manifest in the child's body. If in total there are about 12 thousand worms in nature, then in the human body there can be up to 200 species.
In our latitudes, there may be 50-100 species of different worms in children. However, most often there are two of the most common types of worms in children - pinworms, and roundworms.
Worms are abundant in the environment (in soil, on animals and food). They cannot live without a master. And the child learns the world, is interested in everything, tastes everything and therefore is constantly at risk of infection with worms.
Worms in children find any possible way of penetration into the body - with food (poorly washed vegetables and fruits, not fully cooked meat and fish) and water into the intestines, with air into the lungs, directly through the skin, through the hands into the mouth and further into the intestines after petting a cat or dog, etc.
The signs of worms in children depend on the way and where the worms have penetrated. However, there are signs common to almost all worms in children, which are due to intoxication, as well as a deficiency of vitamins and (or) minerals.
Signs of worms entering the child's body
Symptoms and treatment of worms in children is the basic information that all parents need to know, without exception. Regarding the signs, it is worth noting that the infection manifests itself in different ways. Symptoms depend on the type of worms caught in the baby, the stage of their development. For example, with pinworms, the child complains of a burning sensation in the anus and constantly scratches in this place.
When ascaris enters the body, the signs are invisible until a certain time. When these parasites are twisted into tangles, the child develops intestinal obstruction, and the condition worsens.
Worms, being in the child's body, absorb various nutrients and vitamins from the organs of the digestive system. The kid does not receive them. Because of this, the child loses weight, he has a delay in growth and development.
Parasites entering the internal organs cause mechanical tissue damage. The intestinal motor function is impaired. Because of this, the child has diarrhea and constipation. Also, due to worms, the balance of microflora is disturbed. This leads to the development of dysbiosis and the appearance of symptoms of this disease.
Manifestations of infection include urinary incontinence, exacerbation of allergic diseases, increased frequency of colds, teeth grinding during sleep. All of the above symptoms may not occur at the same time. Quite often, children show some specific symptom.
Worms in children: common signs
Worms in children are foreign organisms that poison a small organism with the products of their vital activity, cause intoxication and allergy. In addition, worms in children consume, for example, minerals and vitamins for their vital functions. Therefore, there is a deficiency of these substances in the body. And these are also signs of worms in children.
Most often, worms in children occur in the autumn-summer time, when there is most of all fresh vegetables and fruits, and also children spend most of their time outdoors.
The general signs of worms in children associated with intoxication include weakness and the so-called irritable weakness in a child. That is, the child feels weak, fatigued and therefore capricious and irritated. The child may sleep poorly, complain of headaches and some vague abdominal pain.
Common signs of worms in children associated with intoxication include weakness and so-called irritable weakness in a child.
With worms in children, appetite may decrease or increase, nausea and alternating constipation and diarrhea may periodically occur. In some cases, children may periodically have a slight increase in body temperature (up to 37-37.2 ° C) for no apparent reason. Sometimes, with worms, children may experience itchy skin, recurrent rash, dry and pale skin, bluish circles around the eyes.
It is important that in the general blood test, which makes sense to do for children on a regular basis, often with worms in children, an increased level of blood eosinophils is detected. This indicator speaks of the body's allergization.
And one of the most common causes of allergization of the child's body is precisely the worms in children. With prolonged presence of worms in children, hemoglobin may decrease. To prevent this from happening, the treatment of worms in children should be regular, since it is difficult to even imagine the conditions under which the child could not become infected with them.
Worms in children: private signs
Pinworms are the most common worms in children. Enterobiasis (pinworm infection) occurs in ¾ cases of detection of worms in children. With pinworms, the child may have itching and irritation in the anus (mainly in the evening and night). Most often, a small child begins to masturbate due to itching in the perineum caused by pinworms.
On the second place in terms of prevalence are roundworms in children. They most often do not show specific signs. Roundworms can be quite large (up to 20 cm), often there are several of them, and they tend to curl into knots. Therefore, roundworms can even cause intestinal obstruction in children. Sometimes parents can feel a worm node in the intestines in the child's abdomen.
Sometimes parents can find worms in the child's feces. This is a direct sign of worms in children. Most often these are pinworms, maybe roundworms.
Also, from worms in children, such as hookworms and trichocephallus can be found. They cause a variety of symptoms: fever, deterioration in general condition, muscle pain, sometimes - cough, abdominal pain, stool disorder. It is not easy to suspect worms in children in this case. Often they can only be detected with the help of laboratory blood tests.
Ways of penetration of worms into the body
Infection of a child can occur when the larvae of worms or their eggs enter the body. The penetrations can be different:
- when playing with pets;
- while walking down the street or playing in the sandbox;
- when visiting public toilets;
- through unwashed hands;
- through unwashed fruits and vegetables;
- by contact with dirty objects (eg toys).
The larvae and eggs of the worms are very small. They cannot be seen with the naked eye.
Parasites that are not in the human body, but in the environment, can maintain their viability for a long period. They are activated, begin to grow and multiply when they enter the organs of the child's digestive system.
The most favorable conditions in the intestines. It is in this organ that worms live. They cannot live in the stomach, because it has an acidic environment.
Types of worms in children - Worms in a child
About seventy species of helminths affect the population of Russia. There is a division of worms into several classes:
- Nematodes (roundworms). They cause ascariasis, trichocephalosis, enterobiasis, trichinosis. With these types of worms, people become infected through poorly washed food, water, dirty dishes, insect bites, or contact with an infected area of land. Nematode eggs rarely survive outside the host. Once in the body, they begin to develop intensively and larvae appear from them. Roundworms can affect any organ in the human body. The incubation period during infection can last up to several weeks.
- Cestodes (tapeworms). They penetrate into a person by eating unwashed fruits and vegetables, poorly thermally processed fish, meat, unboiled water, as well as through unwashed hands. Representatives of this class are echinococcus, bovine, pork, dwarf tapeworm and others. Symptoms of the invasion appear after 6–8 weeks.
- Trematodes (flatworms). These include pulmonary, blood, hepatic, intestinal flukes and others. You can get them from pets. These helminths pose a particular danger to the child's body, since they reproduce at a high rate. The diseases that they cause can be fatal. After entering the body, they make themselves felt after 2-4 weeks.
The most common types of worms in children include pinworms - small white worms. Their size, as a rule, does not exceed 2 cm. Pinworms lay eggs at the anus. That is why children experience itching and burning sensations in this area.
The baby will show symptoms of infection for about 1 month. Then all the signs disappear, as the pinworms die. Their lifespan is rather short. However, infection can occur again if the baby continues to take dirty hands or objects in his mouth.
Quite often there are parasites in children are roundworm. Their size is small. There are practically no individuals whose length is more than 0.5 cm.With ascariasis, symptoms rarely appear.
Only an emaciated child has bloody diarrhea or rectal prolapse. The life expectancy of ascaris in the absence of treatment is about 1 year.
Sometimes whipworms are found in babies. The length of these parasites is approximately 5 cm. Symptoms of infection do not appear in a child immediately. The incubation period is 1–1.5 months. Adults live in the intestines, deeply penetrating into the mucous membrane. Vlasoglav can live for quite a long time in the human body - about 6 years.
Parasites also include giardia - microscopic worms that can settle not only in the intestines of the child, but also in his gallbladder. It is not so easy to identify the presence of lamblia in a young body. To visit a doctor and take a biochemical blood test is what you need to do with worms in a child.
Toxocars are another worms that are most often detected in children aged 1 to 4 years. These parasites are quite large. Adults can reach 18 cm in length. With toxocariasis, itchy rashes, excruciating cough and suffocation, fever occur.
Symptoms and consequences of helminthic invasion
The children's body is more often disturbed by representatives of nematodes (pinworms, roundworms). Among the main symptoms that should alert parents if they suspect ascariasis are the following:
- Problems with the gastrointestinal tract (constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain, increased gas production, lack of appetite).
- An increase in the size of the liver, spleen, lymph nodes.
- Rashes (urticaria, allergic dermatitis), pigmentation (yellowness) of the skin.
- Itching and redness of the anus.
- Neuropsychic disorders in the form of irascibility, increased excitability, moods, restless sleep.
- Increased body temperature.
With enterobiasis (pinworm infection), a number of symptoms also occur:
- Restless sleep, gritting teeth, talking in a dream.
- Severe itching and hyperemia in the anal ring.
- Weight loss or stunting with a normal diet.
- Fatigue, weakness, drowsiness.
- Headaches, dizziness.
- Nervous and neurological disorders (weak memory, absent-mindedness, tearfulness, irritability).
- Enuresis, vulvovaginitis in girls, due to the close location of the anus, vagina and urethra.
- Abdominal pain, bowel disorders, vomiting, loss of appetite.
- Decreased level of hemoglobin in the blood, vitamin deficiency.
- Unreasonable dry cough.
- Decreased immunity.
Methods for the diagnosis of helminthiasis - Worms in a child
To identify worms in a child's body, ovoscopy is most often used. This study consists in the analysis of feces for eggs of worms, which parasitize in the organs of the digestive system. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to get one hundred percent results, since not all worms systematically lay eggs.
A more accurate result can be achieved using a histological coprogram, which consists in microscopic examination of thin sections of feces. Thanks to this study, it is possible to clearly identify parts of the bodies of the worms, as well as their eggs. As a result, it is possible not only to diagnose helminthiasis, but also to determine the type of parasites.
If there is a suspicion of localization of helminths in the lungs, an X-ray is indicated. In addition, a sputum test is performed.
To check for parasites in the liver, brain, or kidneys, a CT scan or ultrasound is done. To diagnose helminths in the blood, a general blood test is done, which also allows you to determine anemia or inflammatory processes in the body.
The principles of therapy for helminthiasis in children
In most cases, when treating helminthiasis in one family member, treatment must be carried out for all adults and children living in the area. This applies not only to highly contagious ascariasis, but also to other types of helminthiasis. Medicines for each family member are also selected by a doctor depending on age and health status.
If there are animals in the house, they are required to undergo anthelmintic treatment, regardless of the time after the prevention.
In the room where the sick child lives, it is necessary to do daily hygienic cleaning, it is advisable to remove all carpets, soft toys, bedspreads during the treatment. Change bed linen and underwear, personal towels as often as possible (panties - twice a day), after washing all linen must be ironed thoroughly.
It is necessary to monitor compliance with the rules of hygiene: wash your hands after each visit to the toilet room, return from the street, use only personal towels, cut your nails short.
Without following the rules, therapy may be ineffective due to the constant presence of sources of infection in the patient's environment.
Medication for the treatment of helminthiasis in children
Therapy for helminthiasis is based on two directions: getting rid of parasites and detoxifying the body, reducing or eliminating the harm caused by existing helminths.
To reduce the severity of signs of intoxication, vitamin preparations (B, C), iron, vitamin-mineral complexes, glucose solution, a course of hemodez infusions, etc. are prescribed. In some cases, the use of diuretics, antihistamines is indicated. In case of damage to the heart muscle, liver tissue, hormonal agents can be used.
As a maintenance therapy, enterosorbents are prescribed, which remove the waste products of parasites from the gastrointestinal tract, enzyme preparations that help to improve the processes of digestion and the functioning of organs, etc.
For any helminthiasis, the use of broad-spectrum drugs in children is highly discouraged. Medicines that cause the death of parasites also affect the human body, therefore, the selection of a drug and its dosage must be approached with caution.
Anthelmintic drugs - Worms in a child
|Mebendazole (Vermox)||Ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, ankylostomiasis|
|Albendazole||Ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, trichocephalosis, ankylostomiasis|
Home and folk methods of getting rid of worms are categorically not recommended due to the lack of evidence and the ability to accurately measure the dosage and the likely effect on the child's body.
Is it possible to get infected with worms from other children
If the child is healthy, then the likelihood that he will become infected with worms is very small. In a healthy body, there are no conditions for the development of helminths. The breeding ground for helminthic diseases is malnutrition, an extreme lack of proteins and vitamins in food.
In reality, eggs of various parasites almost constantly enter the human gastrointestinal tract, but infection and development of the disease does not occur.
For the prevention of helminthic diseases, it is enough to eat well, wash your hands thoroughly before eating, regularly carry out wet cleaning and monitor the cleanliness of underwear and bed linen.
Prevention of infection with worms
Parasites are found in the environment everywhere: in the ground, on unwashed berries, vegetables and fruits, on dirty objects. However, despite such a prevalence of worms, their entry into the body can be avoided. Parents should be sure to educate their children about the importance of prevention.
The main measures to prevent infection include:
- washing hands before eating and after using the toilet;
- thorough washing of berries, vegetables and fruits (first with running water, and then with hot water);
- a ban on children playing with street animals;
- a ban on putting fingers, pencils, markers, pens in the mouth;
- cooking meat and fish for 40-60 minutes (at least);
- regular butt washing before bed and after waking up.
Also, for the prevention of worms in a child, parents should be prohibited from drinking unboiled water from the tap, from wells and springs. You should not be allowed to lick icicles in winter, bite your nails, pencils and pens.
Another important preventive measure is taking certain antihelminthic drugs to prevent infection. The World Health Organization advises parents to give their children between the ages of 1.5 and 7 years as a preventive measure twice a year (in late autumn and spring).
Experts recommend drugs such as Levamisole, Albendazole, Pirantel, Mebendazole. These funds are safe and effective. Thanks to them, you can prevent infection.
Thus, the symptoms and treatment of worms in a child is a rather relevant topic. You need to get rid of parasites as quickly as possible, because they absorb useful substances that could benefit the baby. The sooner you can get rid of the worms, the faster the baby's condition will normalize, and the unpleasant symptoms will pass.