Table of contents:
- Trichomoniasis - what is it?
- Causes and forms of trichomoniasis in women
- Prerequisites for the development of trichomoniasis in women
- Early symptoms of trichomoniasis in women
- The first symptoms of trichomoniasis in women
- Signs of chronic trichomoniasis in women
- Trichomoniasis during pregnancy
- Diagnosing trichomoniasis in women
- Trichomoniasis diagnostics in modern clinics
- The danger of trichomoniasis for women
- Trichomoniasis treatment
- Measures for the prevention of trichomoniasis in women
Video: Signs Of Trichomoniasis In Women - Symptoms And Treatment
Signs of trichomoniasis in women. Trichomoniasis, the symptoms of which in women can be manifested by inflammation of the genitals, burning sensation, discharge, is often complemented by the addition of other genital infections, therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of this disease should be carried out in a medical institution. Sexually transmitted diseases are widespread in our time, trichomoniasis is one of them. The infection brings significant discomfort to a person's life, and also threatens reproductive function and the health of the entire genitourinary system.
The content of the article:
- 1 Trichomoniasis - what is it?
- 2 Causes and forms of trichomoniasis in women
- 3 Classification
- 4 Prerequisites for the development of trichomoniasis in women
- 5 Early symptoms of trichomoniasis in women
- 6 The first symptoms of trichomoniasis in women
- 7 Signs of chronic trichomoniasis in women
- 8 Trichomoniasis during pregnancy
- 9 Diagnosis of trichomoniasis in women
- 10 Diagnostics of trichomoniasis in modern clinics
- 11 Danger of trichomoniasis for women
12 Treatment of trichomoniasis
12.1 Treatment regimens
- 13 Measures for the prevention of trichomoniasis in women
Trichomoniasis - what is it?
Many women who are in a state of pregnancy do not quite understand why they are prescribed a whole range of tests for the presence of various diseases that can only be passed through sexual contact.
Trichomonas vaginalis is a unicellular organism that is the causative agent of a disease such as trichomoniasis. Trichomoniasis is an infectious disease that affects the genitourinary system. One of the most common diseases among the organs of the genitourinary system. It is transmitted through unprotected sexual contact.
Trichomoniasis or trichomoniasis, a disease of the genitourinary system caused by vaginal Trichomonas
Such diseases are very common today and in most cases do not show any symptoms during their course. Despite this, some of them can negatively affect pregnancy, childbirth and the health of the child. One of these diseases is trichomoniasis.
Trichomoniasis or trichomoniasis, a disease of the genitourinary system, caused by vaginal Trichomonas. These are unicellular protozoa belonging to the class of flagellates. Most often, this disease can pass from one person to another during intercourse.
This disease does not develop a permanent resistance of the body to it. Often this disease can occur along with gonorrhea, chlamydia, and other diseases of this kind. Previously, this disease was not considered a dangerous disease. To date, it has been proven that this disease increases the chances of HIV transmission during intercourse and poses a threat of miscarriage during pregnancy.
Causes and forms of trichomoniasis in women
The causes of trichomoniasis in women are:
- change in the acidity of the vaginal environment after menstruation or during them;
- childbirth (the cervix is dilated);
- sexual intercourse, when pathogens enter the vagina directly from an infected partner;
Forms of trichomoniasis in women: "fresh" (occurs in an acute, subacute or erased form); chronic (the disease began 60 or more days ago, the symptoms are mild and / or intermittent); Carriage of infection (there are no symptoms, but the causative agent of trichomoniasis can be detected when taking a smear from the vagina and a special test for STDs).
Trichomoniasis is classified according to its location. Thus, trichomoniasis is subdivided into:
- Trichomonas vaginitis;
- Trichomonas urethritis;
- Trichomonas colpitis;
- Trichomonas cystitis;
- Trichomonas prostatitis;
- Trichomonas bartholinitis.
By the nature of the course of urogenital trichomoniasis: Fresh trichomoniasis (acute, subacute). From the onset of the first symptoms 1-2 months. Chronic process. After 2 months from the onset of the disease. It proceeds in periods: exacerbation - remission. Characteristically: a significant decrease in libido, dryness in the vagina, decreased immunity, increased fatigue. Carriage. Symptoms are absent, men usually suffer, in the ratio of diseases in men 65-81%, and women 18-38%. Persons with this species are carriers of the infection. It is very difficult to diagnose.
Only ten percent of those infected have purely trichomoniasis. Others also have such STDs: ureaplasmosis; chlamydia; gonorrhea; syphilis, etc.
The reason for such combinations is that Trichomonas absorb the causative agents of other diseases. Therefore, you run the risk of contracting two or more STDs at once. Carriers are only from 2 to 41%, because the immune system may be able to defend against the multiplication of infection.
Prerequisites for the development of trichomoniasis in women
However, for the development of trichomoniasis, there are a number of other prerequisites in a woman's body.
The main signs of the prerequisites for trichomoniasis in women:
- the postpartum period, when the expansion of the muscles of the cervix leads to a natural violation of mechanical protection;
- menstrual and postmenstrual periods, accompanied by fluctuations in the acidity of the vaginal contents (for Trichomonas, the optimal acidity of the vaginal contents is the range of 5.5-6.6 pH);
- abortion, which provokes changes in the body that contribute to the occurrence of trichomoniasis;
- orgasm, during which the uterine cavity is prone to "absorption" of the causative agent of the disease.
Early symptoms of trichomoniasis in women
From infection to the manifestation of the first symptoms, it takes place in different cases from 4 to 14 days in women. The first symptoms most patients find in themselves 4-5 days after contact with a sick sexual partner.
Symptoms in general will depend on the site of the primary infection (vagina, rectum, etc.). Basically, the pathological process begins in the vagina, on the cervix, and also in the urethra.
With trichomoniasis, in almost all cases, there is abundant vaginal discharge, which is called leucorrhoea in medicine.
But do not think that they are white or whitish. They are yellowish or green in color. They are foamy in consistency. The discharge smells very unpleasant. If a woman, along with trichomoniasis, became infected with gardnerellosis, then the discharge will smell like fish.
In many cases, patients experience pain during further sexual intercourse. If Trichomonas began to multiply in the urethra, then you will often want to go to the toilet. And when emptying the bladder, there will be a burning sensation, pain and other unpleasant sensations. Then urethritis is diagnosed, that is, the inflammatory process in the urethra. It requires the right treatment.
Always with trichomoniasis in women, there is a symptom such as burning and / or itching in the vagina. The vulva is swollen and hyperemic (red). There may be abdominal pain of a aching nature, but not in all cases. The doctor examines the patient's vagina. In this case, redness of the mucous membrane is detected. And it contains foamy discharge. Then the doctor talks about vulvovaginitis.
Also, leucorrhoea with trichomoniasis in women causes skin irritation when it flows from the vagina onto the inner thigh.
A softening of the cervix is also found. If you touch it with a gynecological mirror, blood will flow. This is called cervicitis. Ulcers appear on the skin if the leucorrhoea is not washed off for a while. Colposcopy reveals strawberry cervix. Large numbers of capillary hemorrhages are visualized on the cervix.
The first symptoms of trichomoniasis in women
The main primary signs in women:
- copious foamy vaginal discharge with a yellow-green color;
- unpleasant odor of discharge, when combined with gardnerellosis, takes on the smell of stale fish;
- pain during intercourse;
- when the process spreads to the urethra, there is pain when urinating, burning, frequent urge;
- burning sensation in the vagina, itching, redness of the vulva;
- pain in the lower abdomen (rarely diagnosed).
The first symptoms of trichomoniasis in women appear 4-5 days after infection. The deadline for the end of the incubation period is 2 weeks. The symptomatology of the initial phase of the disease depends on the location of the pathogen - this is the cervix, urethra or vagina.
During a gynecological examination, the doctor sees the cervix, bleeding on contact with mirrors, an inflamed vaginal mucosa. These are symptoms of cervicitis and vulvovaginitis.
Inspection of the cervix with a colposcope leads to the conclusion "strawberry cervix", as there are numerous hemorrhages from damage to the capillaries. An additional symptom of trichomoniasis is irritation by secretions of the inner surface of the thighs, the appearance of sores and abrasions on the skin.
It is worth remembering that in trichomoniasis, the period of its incubation development can last up to a month, during which the disease will not manifest itself in any way. The patient during the incubation course of the disease does not know about the infection, but he himself is a carrier and distributor of pathogenic microflora. It can infect other people through sexual contact - the main route of transmission of the disease is sexual.
In the practice of doctors, the disease manifests itself quite clearly and sharply, although situations are not excluded in which the symptoms show themselves sluggishly or do not manifest themselves at all.
As a rule, this can be an incubation period, but also a manifestation of a chronic, asymptomatic form of pathology, or the disease manifests itself as minor symptoms.
But this does not exclude the need to be examined and diagnosed by a doctor, to pass all tests. This is extremely necessary, first of all, for you and your partner, when you are insecure about your sexual partner, suspect infection through household items, a latent, latent period of the course of the disease.
Signs of chronic trichomoniasis in women
The transition of trichomoniasis to a chronic form occurs in the absence of treatment. This phase is characterized by the presence of exacerbations and a prolonged course.
Between periods of relapse, the signs of trichomoniasis are erased. An increase in the volume of discharge, discomfort in the vagina in everyday life and during sexual intercourse is possible. Symptoms of the disease with relapse of the disease are similar to those of the acute phase.
Signs of chronic trichomoniasis in women:
- decreased immunity due to somatic diseases, hypothermia;
- ovarian hypofunction;
- promiscuous sex life;
- alcohol abuse;
- gynecological pathologies.
Trichomoniasis during pregnancy
Trichomoniasis during childbearing is also worth mentioning. Diagnosing an infection during pregnancy is not a prerequisite for terminating it. Although the disease can cause complications during the antenatal period, patients are prescribed a standard course of treatment.
The only change compared to the standard protocol is the need to exclude the use of metronidazole in the first trimester of pregnancy.
The course of treatment for trichomoniasis should be carried out no earlier than the second trimester.
There are also statistics according to which in five percent of cases of trichomoniasis in a pregnant woman is transmitted to her child. But the structural features of the newborn's epithelium are such that the infection in his body is mild and in most cases heals itself.
Diagnosing trichomoniasis in women
Modern medicine suggests four options for diagnosing this disease:
- culture study, which is recommended in the absence of pronounced symptoms of trichomoniasis;
- molecular biological research, which is designated as the most reliable diagnostic method that does not require additional confirmation;
- microscopic examination of a preparation stained with 1% methylene blue solution. This method is the simplest, but its sensitivity does not exceed 60 percent;
- microscopic examination of an unstained preparation, which demonstrates the highest sensitivity with a pronounced form of infection.
At the same time, progressive medicine in the diagnosis of genital infections, including trichomoniasis, is guided by the principles of the least time and cost, not to the detriment of the reliability of the research results.
Trichomoniasis diagnostics in modern clinics
Gynecological examination with a sampling of a native smear, which, although it does not demonstrate high sensitivity, has the qualities of cheapness and speed of determining the result. The presence of a positive result for the presence of Trichomonas in this case is sufficient to determine the diagnosis.
Gynecological examination with a sampling of a native smear, which, although it does not demonstrate high sensitivity, has the qualities of cheapness and speed of determining the result
Signs of trichomoniasis infection and a negative native smear result in more complex antigen testing. As in the first case, with a positive test, treatment is prescribed, and with a negative test, additional research.
The last study in this diagnostic protocol is culture. Modern medicine considers this complex of procedures to be absolutely sufficient for diagnosing the presence of Trichomonas and does not recommend further actions, guided by the above principle of rationality.
The same applies to the treatment procedure. Having cured trichomoniasis in a woman and not examining a man at the same time, the risk of relapse increases sharply, which can provoke acute or chronic trichomoniasis.
The danger of trichomoniasis for women
Trichomoniasis is often contracted along with other sexually transmitted infections - gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes simplex virus type II.
Danger of trichomoniasis for women:
- increases the risk of developing cervical cancer; increases the risk of being infected with HIV (twofold);
- can cause complications during pregnancy (premature rupture of the membranes, Trichomonas infection of the child during childbirth);
- causes adnexitis; cervicitis; endometritis; dysplasia of the cervix;
- doubles the risks of ectopic pregnancy; often leads to infertility.
It has been proven that Trichomonas vaginalis other Trichomonas can be present in the human oral cavity and even in the lungs. As a rule, this localization is observed in patients with a weakened immune system.
Consequences of the chronic form: sexual disorders; obstruction of the fallopian tubes, as a result of which the impossibility of conception; chronic inflammation of the uterine appendages, which leads to infertility; a malignant process in the cervix, that is, cancer; complications of pregnancy.
Trichomoniasis are a risk factor for the following diseases: genital cancer; mastopathy; allergy; diabetes.
During pregnancy, women with trichomoniasis may have the following complications: intrapartum and antenatal death of the embryo; chorionamnionitis; prenatal effusion; premature birth; miscarriage.
For effective treatment, it is necessary to treat two partners at once. Usually, the course of treatment is at least 30 days. Then, after the end of treatment after 3 weeks, it is necessary to do a second analysis. As practice shows, often, one course of treatment is not enough for a complete recovery. If you follow all the doctor's prescriptions, the patient quickly recovers and the treatment time is reduced. The start of treatment is assigned individually to each partner. The treatment is based on antiparasitic drugs. Since Trichomonas are very resistant to antibiotics, antibiotics are therefore not effective. During treatment, you must adhere to some rules: refusal to drink alcohol; refusal to have sex.
For treatment, special schemes are used:
- Metronidazole - 2 tablets for 10 days. 4 days, 3 tablets per day, then 4 days, 2 tablets per day. 8 tablets per day for severe degree, course 3 days.
- Tinidazole and Ornidazole - 2 tablets per day, the course of treatment is 7 days.
- Nitazol - 3 tablets per day, the course of treatment is 2 weeks. If you use candles, then they are used strictly every 12 hours, for 90 days of treatment (during menstruation, candles are not inserted).
- Osarsol (Vaginal) - 2 times a day, the course of treatment is 20 days.
- Furazolidone - 2 tablets 3 times a day, the course of treatment is 3 days. Klion-D, candles. 1 candle at night, the course of treatment is 10 days.
Measures for the prevention of trichomoniasis in women
In order not to get sick with trichomoniasis, a woman must observe certain protective measures:
- abstaining from promiscuous sexual relations;
- avoiding unprotected sex, using a condom;
- the use of bactericidal solutions for disinfecting the genitals after accidental contact;
- regular express diagnostics of genital infections;
- avoiding genital intercourse with a partner you are not sure about. Such a preventive measure guarantees the safety of a woman from contracting trichomoniasis; In theory, non-traditional types of sex are considered safe in this regard. However, both with anal and oral sex without protection, you can acquire a genital infection that accompanies trichomoniasis. For HPV, chlamydia, gonorrhea and other infections, gastrointestinal conditions will not interfere with entry into the body;
- one healthy sexual partner who does not have sexually transmitted diseases reduces the risk of contracting trichomoniasis to zero. A complete STD test can take 2-3 months. For complete confidence, it is advisable to use a condom during this period;
choice in favor of barrier methods of contraception. The most common way to protect a woman from trichomoniasis is by a man using a condom. There are rules for using this method of contraception to achieve maximum protection.
A condom is a single-use item, the packaging with which must not be opened with sharp objects. After intercourse is completed and the condom is removed, the genitals must not be in contact with the partner. A slipped or torn condom must be replaced, preferably by treating the genitals with a bactericidal solution;
- drug prevention. If there is a questionable sexual contact in terms of safety, or sex with a partner known to have an STD, drug prophylaxis can be carried out in a dermatovenerologic dispensary. The doctor will introduce drugs to protect against the possible introduction into the body of pathogens of genital infections: trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, etc. This prophylaxis does not work on HPV viruses, genital herpes, HIV infection;
the use of bactericidal agents. For the treatment of the genitals, thighs, perineum in case of doubtful contact or in violation of the integrity of the condom use bactericidal drugs: Betadine; Chlorhexidine; Miramistin
A full guarantee that a latent course of trichomoniasis does not occur in the body can be given by a regular check for the presence of an infectious agent. Such a diagnosis at an early stage will help to easily get rid of the disease, not become a source of infection for a partner, and prevent complications.
For the treatment of trichomoniasis, women should consult a doctor of the following directions: venereologist; urologist; gynecologist.
At the first appointment, the doctor will conduct a visual examination of the genitals, take time to collect anamnesis, and prescribe the necessary laboratory examination of blood and other biological material. In women, vaginal discharge is analyzed, in men - the secretion of the prostate gland and discharge from the urethra.